烏鴉 (詩)

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〈烏鴉〉一詩敘述了烏鴉對悲傷的敘述者的神祕午夜拜訪,插圖由約翰·坦尼爾 (1858) 繪製。

烏鴉》(英语:The Raven),又譯作《渡鴉》,是美國作家埃德加·愛倫·坡所著的一首敘事詩,於1845年1月首次出版。它的音調優美,措辭獨具風格,詩句並有著超自然的氛圍。它講述了一隻會說話渡鴉對一名發狂的戀人的神祕拜訪,描繪了這個男人緩慢陷入瘋狂的過程。這名戀人,普遍被認為是一名學生[1][2],因失去他的所愛勒諾(Lenore)而深感悲痛。渡鴉坐在帕拉斯胸像上,似乎在進一步煽動著他的憂傷,不斷重複著話語:「永不復焉。」此詩使用了眾多民間古典的文獻。

愛倫·坡自認此詩寫得十分有邏輯與條理。他的目的是創作一首能皆在評論與大眾兩方引起共鳴的詩,同他在他1846年的後續評論《創作哲學》中所解釋的。此詩說話渡鴉的部分的靈感來自於查爾斯·狄更斯的《巴納比·拉奇:八零年代暴動的故事[3]。愛倫·坡亦模仿了白朗寧的詩作《傑拉丁女士的求婚》的複雜節奏與韻律。全詩並使用句中韻以及頭韻法

《烏鴉》於1845年1月29日進行首次印刷,由《紐約鏡像晚報》發行。它的出版使得愛倫·坡終身受到歡迎,儘管這並沒有為他帶來巨大的財富。此詩不久後便再版、受諧仿及加上插圖。儘管評論對其地位的見解並不一致,它仍是史上最著名的詩作之一。[4]

大綱[编辑]

《烏鴉》一詩隨著一位不具名的旁白進行,其坐著朗讀一段「被遺忘的傳說」,來忘卻他的戀人麗諾爾逝去。

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ Meyers, 163
  2. ^ Silverman, 239
  3. ^ Kopley & Hayes, 192
  4. ^ Silverman, 237

參考文獻[编辑]

  • Adams, John F. "Classical Raven Lore and Poe's Raven" in Poe Studies. Vol. V, no. 2, December 1972. Available online
  • Forsythe, Robert. "Poe's 'Nevermore': A Note", as collected in American Literature 7. January, 1936.
  • Granger, Byrd Howell. "Marginalia - Devil Lore in 'The Raven'" from Poe Studies vol. V, no. 2, December 1972 Available online
  • Hirsch, David H. "The Raven and the Nightingale" as collected in Poe and His Times: The Artist and His Milieu, edited by Benjamin Franklin Fisher IV. Baltimore: The Edgar Allan Poe Society, Inc., 1990. ISBN 0-9616449-2-3
  • Hoffman, Daniel. Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972. ISBN 0-8071-2321-8
  • Kopley, Richard and Kevin J. Hayes. "Two verse masterworks: 'The Raven' and 'Ulalume'", collected in The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe, edited by Kevin J. Hayes. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-521-79727-6
  • Krutch, Joseph Wood. Edgar Allan Poe: A Study in Genius. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1926.
  • Meyers, Jeffrey. Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy. New York City: Cooper Square Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8154-1038-7
  • Moss, Sidney P. Poe's Literary Battles: The Critic in the Context of His Literary Milieu. Southern Illinois University Press, 1969.
  • Ostrom, John Ward. "Edgar A. Poe: His Income as Literary Entrepreneur", collected in Poe Studies Vol. 5, no. 1. June 1982.
  • Peeples, Scott. Edgar Allan Poe Revisited. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1998. ISBN 0-8057-4572-6
  • Poe, Edgar Allan. Edgar Allan Poe: Complete Tales & Poems. Edison, NJ: Castle Books, 2002. ISBN 0-7858-1453-1
  • Silverman, Kenneth. Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance. New York: Harper Perennial, 1991. ISBN 0-06-092331-8
  • Sova, Dawn B. Edgar Allan Poe: A to Z. New York City: Checkmark Books, 2001. ISBN 0-8160-4161-X
  • Thomas, Dwight and David K. Jackson. The Poe Log: A Documentary Life of Edgar Allan Poe, 1809-1849. New York: G. K. Hall & Co., 1987. ISBN 0-7838-1401-1
  • Weiss, Susan Archer. The Home Life of Poe. New York: Broadway Publishing Company, 1907.

外部連結[编辑]

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原文

  • "The Raven" - Full text of the first printing, from the American Review, 1845
  • "The Raven" - Full text of the final authorized printing, from the Richmond Semi-Weekly Examiner, 1849

評論

圖本

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多媒體

  • Interactive multimedia e-book of "The Raven" bringing together Poe's verse, the reading by Robert Donald and the engravings by Gustave Doré.