盤安

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盤安(英文:Paan 來自 梵语 parṇa 意思是 「葉子」[1]) 是一種結合蒌叶檳榔的製備,該製備有時候也會加入菸草[2][3]

癌症風險[编辑]

咀嚼盤安的健康風險:牙齦壞死、蛀牙口腔癌
Health effects: Tobacco-filled paan induces profuse salivation that stains mouth area.

国际癌症研究机构世界卫生组织都已確認此物質對人體致癌,增加約十倍口腔癌風險。 [4][5][6][7] [8][4]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Oxford Dictionary paan
  2. ^ Mack, TM. The new pan-Asian paan problem. The Lancet. 2001, 357 (9269): 1638–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04860-1. 
  3. ^ The World Health Organization IARC Expert Group. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, Vol. 37, Tobacco Habits Other than Smoking; Betel-Quid and Areca-nut Chewing; and Some Related Nitrosamines, Lyon (PDF). IARCPress. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于18 March 2012).  已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 IARC Working Group. Betel-quid and areca-nut chewing and some areca-nut-derived Nitrosamines (PDF). The World Health Organization. 
  5. ^ WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008: the MPOWER package (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization. 2008 [2017-12-02]. ISBN 978-92-4-159628-2. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2018-01-24). 
  6. ^ Warnakulasuriya, S.; Trivedy, C; Peters, TJ. Areca nut use: An independent risk factor for oral cancer. BMJ. 2002, 324 (7341): 799–800. PMC 1122751. PMID 11934759. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7341.799. 
  7. ^ Dave, Bhavana J.; Trivedi, Amit H.; Adhvatyu, Siddharth G. Role of areca nut consumption in the cause of oral cancers. A cytogenetic assessment. Cancer. 1992, 70 (5): 1017–23. PMID 1515978. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19920901)70:5<1017::AID-CNCR2820700502>3.0.CO;2-#. 
  8. ^ Merchant, Anwar; Husain, Syed S. M.; Hosain, Mervyn; Fikree, Fariyal F.; Pitiphat, Waranuch; Siddiqui, Amna Rehana; Hayder, Syed J.; Haider, Syed M.; Ikram, Mubashir; Chuang, Sung-Kiang; Saeed, Shaikh A. Paan without tobacco: An independent risk factor for oral cancer. International Journal of Cancer. 2000, 86 (1): 128–31. PMID 10728606. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(20000401)86:1<128::AID-IJC20>3.0.CO;2-M.