第二語言習得

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第二语言习得(英语:Second-language acquisition,又译「第二语言获得」、「二语习得」),指人们学习第二语言的过程。第二语言获得(常缩写为SLA)同时亦指研究这一过程的科学学科。第二语言是指一个人除了第一语言之外,另外学习掌握的第二种语言;虽然这个概念名为第二语言获得,也可以包括第三、第四或以后的语言学习。


背景[编辑]

第二语言习得是应用语言学下的一个子学科,研究范围广泛而且相对年轻。和语言学其他的分支一样,第二语言习得和心理学认知心理学教育学关系密切。

第二语言习得是一个交叉学科,比较难以确定创始日期。[1]但是有两篇论文被认为对于现代第二语言习得理论的发展至关重要,即Pit Corder在1967年撰写的“学习者错误的重要性”和Larry Selinker在1972年撰写的“中介语”。[2] 随后,该领域在数十年中取得了长足的发展。[1]

20世纪80年代,人们从多个学科角度和理论维度研究了第二语言习得。现在,该学科的主要理论流派包括:系统功能性语言学、社会文化理论,认知语言学、诺姆·乔姆斯基普遍语法联结主义等。

「習得」(acquisition)這個詞最早用以強調無意識、不自覺學習的過程,[3]但後來「學習」(learning)與「習得」(acquisition)已經幾乎變成了同義詞。

关于“语言到底是怎样被学会的”这个问题尚有许多争论。虽然第二语言习得理论很多,但是尚没有能够为所有研究者接受的完整解释。因为该领域是跨学科的,所以这种大一统理论应不会在近期产生。

发展阶段[编辑]

第二语言获得指的是学习者的行为,而不是语言教学的实践,虽然教学会影响到语言获得。

和第一语言习得的比较[编辑]

語音的發展[编辑]

語法的發展[编辑]

詞彙的發展[编辑]

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Gass & Selinker 2008, p. 1.
  2. ^ VanPatten & Benati 2010, pp. 2–5.
  3. ^ Krashen (1982) made a sharp distinction between learning and acquisition, using learning to refer to the conscious aspects of the language learning process and acquisition to refer to the subconscious aspects. This strict separation of learning and acquisition is widely regarded as an oversimplification by researchers today, but his hypotheses were very influential and the name has stuck.
  4. ^ Gass & Selinker 2008, pp. 21–24.
  5. ^ Gass & Selinker 2008, pp. 24–25.
  6. ^ Ellis 1997, p. 3.

参考资料[编辑]

  • Gass, Susan; Selinker, Larry. Second Language Acquisition: An Introductory Course. New York, NY: Routledge. 2008. ISBN 978-0-805-85497-8. 

參考文獻[编辑]

延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • Cook, V. and Singleton, D. (2014). Key Topics in Second Language Acquisition. Bristol: Multilingual Matters
  • Ellis, Rod. (2007). Educational Settings and Second Language Learning. Volume 9 Asian EFL Journal. [1]
  • Ellis, Rod. (2005). Principles of Instructed Language Learning. Volume 7 Asian EFL Journal.
  • Lightbown, P. and Spada, N. (2006). How Languages are Learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2nd edition. [ISBN 0-19-442224-0]
  • Lin, G. H. C. (2008). "Lin, G. H. C. (2008). Pedagogies proving Krashen’s theory of affective filter , Hwa Kang Journal of English Language & Literature, Vol, 14, pp.113–131 ERIC Collection as ED503681 [2]
  • Ellis, Rod. The Interaction Hypothesis A critical evaluation: 37. 1991  – on Michael H. Long's Interaction Hypothesis
  • Mangubhai, F. (2006). "What do we know about learning and teaching second languages: Implications for teaching " Asian EFL Journal Vol 8. 2006 [3]
  • McKay, Sharon; Schaetzel, Kirsten, Facilitating Adult Learner Interactions to Build Listening and Speaking Skills, CAELA Network Briefs, CAELA and Center for Applied Linguistics
  • Mitchell, R. and Myles, F. (2004). Second Language Learning Theories (2nd ed). London: Hodder Arnold.
  • Norris, J. M., & Ortega, L. (2006). (Eds.). Synthesizing research on language learning and teaching. John Benjamins: Amsterdam/Philadelphia.
  • Ortega, L. (2009). Understanding Second Language Acquisition. London: Hodder Arnold.
  • Ortega, L. (2010). Second language acquisition. Critical concepts in linguistics. London: Routledge. [ISBN 978-0-415-45020-1]
  • Oxford, R,. & Lee, K. (2008). Understanding EFL Learners’ Strategy Use and Strategy Awareness.[4]
  • Robertson, P. & Nunn, R. (2007). The Study of Second Language Acquisition in the Asian Context [5]
  • Tarone, E. & Swierzbin, B. (2009). Exploring Learner Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Thomas, M. (2009). Handbook of Research on Web 2.0 and Second Language Learning. IGI Global Sippnet.
  • White, L. (2003). Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

外部連結[编辑]