诺曼底的阿德莱德

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诺曼底的阿德莱德
欧姆勒女伯爵
欧姆勒女伯爵
在位 1069-1090
出生 1030年
過世 约1090年
配偶

蓬蒂埃伯爵昂盖朗二世

朗斯伯爵兰伯特二世
香槟伯爵奥多
子嗣
父親 罗贝尔

诺曼底的阿德莱德(或阿德莉萨1030年-1090年)是征服者威廉的姐姐,以及欧玛勒的女伯爵。

生平[编辑]

她是诺曼底公爵罗伯特一世的亲生女儿,[a]大约出生在1030年[1]。伊丽莎白·范·豪特在她的文章 Les femmes dans l'histoire du duché de Normandie (诺曼底公爵领地历史上的女性)中提到,欧玛勒女伯爵阿德莱德,作为一位诺曼女贵族,在儿童教育方面,尤其是关于家庭历史教育方面,发挥了巨大的作用。[2]

阿德莱德的第一次婚姻是与蓬蒂约伯爵昂盖朗二世。这段婚姻使诺曼底公爵威廉在上诺曼底地区获得了一个强大的盟友。[3]但是,在1049年召开的兰斯会议上,弟弟威廉与弟媳玛蒂尔达的婚姻由于“血缘关系”而被宣布无效,而基于这一原则,阿德莱德的婚姻也被宣布无效。[4]阿德莱德的第一段婚姻在1049-1050年间被宣布无效,而她立即被安排了第二次婚姻,即与朗斯伯爵兰伯特二世,这使得诺曼底和布洛涅两个公国形成一个新的联盟。[5]兰伯特于1054年死于 里尔的战事,当时他正在协助佛兰德斯伯爵鲍德温五世对抗亨利三世[6]成为寡妇的阿德莱德居住在欧姆勒伯爵领,这可能是她第一任丈夫的结婚彩礼,也可能是她第一任丈夫的弟弟盖伊被剥夺爵位后的遗产。[b]作为伯爵遗孀的阿德莱德一开始过起了半隐修的生活。但在1060年,她再次结婚以形成另一个姻亲联盟,这次她的丈夫是年轻的香槟伯爵奥多。[7]奥多对这段婚姻很失望,因为他并没有在威廉征服英格兰后得到土地,阿德莱德则成为了他的封臣。

1082年威廉一世玛蒂尔达王后授予阿德莱德以科唐坦半岛上卡昂地区的一个圣三一修道院,以及欧姆勒女伯爵的终身头衔。[8]1086年,根据Comitissa de Albatnarla,她被列在末日审判书的名单上,显示她在萨福克和埃塞克斯有很多封地。[9]很少诺曼贵族妇女在末日审判书里作为一个地主出现。[10]她也被授予霍尔德内斯的领主特权,并在其后由他们的儿子斯蒂芬继承。 阿德莱德大约在1090年前去世。[11]

家庭[编辑]

阿德莱德结婚一共三次:

第一次与昂盖朗二世(死于1053年)[12],他们有一个女儿:

  • 阿德莱德

第二次与兰伯特二世(死于1054年),他们有一个女儿:

  • 朗斯的茱蒂丝,嫁给了亨廷顿与诺桑比亚伯爵华尔瑟夫。[13]

第三次与奥多 (死于1096年)[14],他们有一个儿子:

  • 欧姆勒伯爵斯蒂芬。

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ The question of who her mother was remains unsettled. Elisabeth Van Houts ['Les femmes dans l'histoire du duché de Normandie', Tabularia « Études », n° 2, 2002, (10 July 2002), p. 23, n. 22] makes the argument that Robert of Torigny in the GND II, p. 272 (one of three mentions in this volume of her being William's sister) calls her in this instance William's 'uterine' sister' (soror uterina) and is of the opinion this is a mistake similar to one he made regarding Richard II, Duke of Normandy and his paternal half-brother William, Count of Eu (calling them 'uterine' brothers). Based on this she concludes Adelaide was a daughter of Duke Robert by a different concubine. Kathleen Thompson ["Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale", Normandy and Its Neighbors, Brepols, (2011) p. 63] cites the same passage in GND as did Elisabeth Van Houts, specifically GND II, 270-2, but gives a different opinion. She noted that Robert de Torigni stated here she was the uterine sister of Duke William "so we might perhaps conclude that she shared both mother and father with the Conqueror." But as Torigni wrote a century after Adelaide's birth and in that same sentence in the GND made a genealogical error, she concludes that the identity of Adelaide's mother remains an open question.
  2. ^ Prior to it becoming a small county, Aumale was a town on the Bresle river in northeastern Normandy. It came into the family by way of Enguerrand's mother, the heiress of Aumale. It was settled on Adelaide of Normandy as a countship by her brother William the Conqueror, but at what exact time isn't known. Adelaide was the first countess followed by her son Stephen of Aumale as the second holder but first count. See Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, Vol. I, p. 350.

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ George Andrews Moriarty, The Plantagenet Ancestry of King Edward III and Queen Philippa (Mormon Pioneer Genealogy Society, Salt Lake City, UT, 1985), p. 13
  2. ^ Elisabeth van Houts, 'Les femmes dans l'histoire du duché de Normandie', Tabularia « Études », n° 2, 2002, (10 July 2002), p. 24
  3. ^ Kathleen Thompson, 'Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale', Normandy and its Neighbours 900–1250; Essays for David Bates, ed. David Crouch, Kathleen Thompson (Brepols Publishers, Belgium, 2011), pp. 69–70
  4. ^ Kathleen Thompson, 'Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale', Normandy and its Neighbours 900–1250; Essays for David Bates, ed. David Crouch, Kathleen Thompson (Brepols Publishers, Belgium, 2011), p. 68
  5. ^ Kathleen Thompson, 'Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale', Normandy and its Neighbours 900–1250; Essays for David Bates, ed. David Crouch, Kathleen Thompson (Brepols Publishers, Belgium, 2011), p. 71
  6. ^ John Carl Andressohn, The ancestry and life of Godfrey of Bouillon (Ayer Publishing, 1972) p. 20
  7. ^ Kathleen Thompson, 'Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale', Normandy and its Neighbours 900–1250; Essays for David Bates, ed. David Crouch, Kathleen Thompson (Brepols Publishers, Belgium, 2011), p. 72
  8. ^ George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, ed. Vicary Gibbs, Vol. I (The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., London, 1910), p. 351
  9. ^ Ann Williams, The English and the Norman Conquest (The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, UK, 1995), p. 58, n. 57
  10. ^ Kathleen Thompson, 'Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale', Normandy and its Neighbours 900–1250; Essays for David Bates, ed. David Crouch, Kathleen Thompson (Brepols Publishers, Belgium, 2011), p. 76
  11. ^ George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, ed. Vicary Gibbs, Vol. I (The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., London, 1910), p. 352
  12. ^ George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, ed. Vicary Gibbs, Vol. I (The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., London, 1910), pp. 350–2
  13. ^ N. J. Higham, The Kingdom of Northumbria, AD 350 – 1100 (Alan Sutton Publishing, Ltd. , 1993), p. 226
  14. ^ Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, Marburg, Germany, 1984), Tafel 46