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维基百科,自由的百科全书
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乌克兰反示威法指十项限制言论自由集会自由的法律[1]。2014年1月16日,乌克兰最高拉达通过该项法案,史称“黑色星期四”,并于次日在自11月开始的大规模反政府抗议活动的浪潮下,总统维克托·亚努科维奇签署法令[2][3]。法律被亲欧盟运动示威者[4]非政府组织[5]、学者[6]和乌克兰媒体统称为“独裁统治的法律”(закони про диктатуру[7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

西方国家批评法律凸显出乌克兰不民主的本质以及明显想遏制抗议、言论自由和非政府组织活动权利的能力[14]。媒体和学者称法律为“霸王法律”[15]蒂莫西·斯奈德声称他们高效地确立一个独裁统治的国家[16]。法律在国际上遭到广泛谴责,美国国务卿约翰·克里称法律反民主。

法律由国会议员Vadym Kolesnychenko和地区党主席Volodymyr Oliynyk拟定,受到地区党和共产党组成的投票集团[17]和一些独立议员的支持。法律违反程序。新法律生效后,内政部部长维塔利·扎尔哈琴科承诺“每项犯罪都会被我方严惩[18]。”

2014年1月28日,议会取消九项反示威法律[19][20][21]

立法程序[编辑]

在通過烏克蘭反示威法時,議會便違反了數條程序規定。烏克蘭反示威法是由舉手投票表決的,不過根據法律規定,只有當電子投票系統遭遇「技術性困難」時才能以舉手表決代替。除此之外,議員們舉起的手只在短短幾秒內便「點」完了,票數是由議員們加上議會成員的總人數得出的,雖然當天其實有幾位議員不在場。有人發現當時表決時舉手的人其實只有100~140,根據當時的法律,法案至少需要226位票才能通過。大部分的法律都沒有經過事前考量,甚至沒有經過議員的審查。[22]

規定[编辑]

烏克蘭反示威法包含下列規定:[4]

  • 立法禁止「極端活動」。根據烏克蘭 透明國際組織 表示,規則中的「極端活動」被用「廣泛且模糊的詞彙」所定義,[22]初犯者會面臨高昂的罰款,再犯者則面臨最高三年牢獄。
  • Simplifying the process of removal of parliamentary immunity during criminal proceedings to a majority vote in the Parliament. A prior review is no longer required by the Parliamentary committee;
  • Extending and applying amnesty from prosecution previously adopted by the Parliament to those who committed crimes against protestors, including Berkut security forces and other law enforcement officials;
  • Allowing trial in absentia of individuals, including prison terms in cases where the person refuses to appear in court when criminal proceedings in the absence of such person are pronounced possible;
  • Simplifying procedures for serving summons and filing administrative protocols;
  • 擋住住宅的進出路線將面臨最高六年牢獄。
    若五輛車子以上的車隊造成了交通堵塞,將面臨被吊銷駕照1~2年,並且車輛將被沒收
  • 集結五輛以上的車隊,並造成交通壅塞者,面臨吊銷駕照與沒收車輛,最高可長達兩年(除非有獲得內政部的許可)。
  • Defamation, either by means of press or social media, carries a penalty of up to one year in jail;
  • Law enforcement officials involved in similar activities and their families face a maximum prison term of six months;
  • The penalty for blocking government buildings is up to five years in jail; that for blocking of entrance to a residence is up to three years of restriction of liberty
  • Up to 15 days in jail for unauthorised installation of tents, stages and sound equipment;
  • Anti-mask law with the provision of up to 15 days in jail for participation in peaceful gatherings wearing a mask, camouflage clothing, scarf, helmet, or other means of concealing or protecting one’s face or head;
  • Non-governmental organizations that accept foreign funds must register as "foreign agents" and face high scrutiny and additional tax measures;
  • Mandatory licensing of Internet providers;
  • Provisions for legal governmental Internet censorship;
  • A broad definition of "extremist activities," which disallows Non-governmental organizations and churches from engaging in support of civil protests.[4]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ In Ukraine, protesters appear to be preparing for battle. The Washington Post. 2014-01-20 [2014-01-20]. ...particularly with the passage last week of harsh laws restricting freedom of speech and assembly. 
  2. ^ Official web portal of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. 2014-01-16 [2014-01-22]. For the period of January 14–17, the Verkhovna Rada adopted 11 Laws and 1 Resolution 
  3. ^ President signs laws. Press office of President Yanukovych. 2014-01-17 [2014-01-22]. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Maidaner, Efim. Australians condemn new dictatorship laws in Ukraine. 2014-01-17 [2014-01-22]. 
  5. ^ Громадські організації закликають до Всеукраїнської мобілізації. Transparency International Ukraine. 2014-01-17 [2014-01-22]. 
  6. ^ http://blogs.piie.com/realtime/?p=4222 "on January 16, he had the parliament adopt nine dictatorial laws"
  7. ^ МЗС відповів ОБСЄ: "закони про диктатуру" відповідають усім демократичним стандартам. Українська правда. 2014-01-18 [2014-01-22]. 
  8. ^ Закони про диктатуру вже надруковані. 2014-01-21 [2014-01-22]. 
  9. ^ Кравчук: закони про "диктатуру" треба вдосконалити. Тиждень.ua. 2014-01-19 [2014-01-22]. 
  10. ^ Масові позови і народний фронт – відповідь правозахисників на "закони про диктатуру". Radio Svoboda Ukraine. 2014-01-17 [2014-01-22]. 
  11. ^ Yanukovych signed dictatorship laws and made a reshuffle of top officials. Citizen Journal: Ukraine. 2014-01-17 [2014-01-22]. 
  12. ^ В ОБСЄ сподіваються, що Янукович накладе вето на "закони про диктатуру". 2014-01-16 [2014-01-22]. 
  13. ^ Міністри закордонних справ Німеччини та Великобританії засудили закони про диктатуру. Новий погляд. 2014-01-18 [2014-01-22]. 
  14. ^ Ukrainian president approves strict anti-protest laws. The Guardian. 2014-01-17 [2014-01-22]. 
  15. ^ Danilova, Maria. Ukrainian protesters defy new draconian laws. Toronto Star. 2014-01-19 [2014-01-20]. 
  16. ^ Snyder, Timothy D. Ukraine: The New Dictatorship. The New York Review of Books. [2014-01-18]. 
  17. ^ Dictatorship in Ukraine legalized. Infographics of the new reality.. CitizenJournal. 2014-01-16 [2014-01-22]. 
  18. ^ Zakharchenko pledges harsh response to lawbreakers. Kyiv Post. 2014-01-18 [2014-01-22]. 
  19. ^ Law on scrapping January 16 legislation published in Ukraine, Interfax-Ukraine (2014-02-03)
  20. ^ Рада отменила скандальные законы
  21. ^ Какие законы Рада не отменила
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 Kotliar, Dmytro. Summary of laws adopted by Ukrainian parliament on January 16, 2014. Transparency International Ukraine. 2014-01-17 [2014-01-22]. 

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法案原文