维基百科:希臘語國際音標

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索

下列表格显示的是在维基百科条目中用国际音标(IPA表记的古希腊语现代希腊语的音韵结构。目前古希腊语的发音常用希腊语罗马字转写系统表示,而希`腊本土居民常用现代希腊语词句表示。

关于此语言的具体的音韵结构,参见古代希腊语音系现代希腊语音系

辅音
希腊字母 IPA 示例

义的
英文词汇

古希腊语 现代希腊语
 ῾ h ἥρως [hɛ̌ːrɔːs], [ˈiros] hero (仅古希腊语)
β b v βίος [ˈvios] vet
γ ɡ ɣ γάλα [ˈɣala] 没有相应的英文词汇
ʝ[1] γη [ʝi] yellow
δ d ð δῆμος [dɛ̂ːmos], [ðimos] then
ζ dz[2] z ζώνη [ˈzoni] zero
θ θ θεολογία [θeoloˈʝia] thing
κ k k καλός [kaˈlos] sky
c[1] κύκλος [ˈciklos] 诸如 key
λ l l λεξικό [leksiˈko] lie
ʎ[3] ελιά [e̞ˈʎa] million
μ m m μηχανικός [mixaniˈkos] mine
ν n n νέος [ˈneos] nine
ɲ[3] νιότη [ˈɲoti] onion
ξ ks ξενοφοβία [ksenofoˈvia] tax
π p πρόγραμμα [ˈproɣrama] spy
ρ r r[4] ρητορική [ritoriˈci] trilled r,如同意大利语和西班牙语
[5]
σ[6] s σύστημα [ˈsistima] sea
τ t τηλέφωνο [tiˈlefono] step
φ f φαινόμενο [feˈnomeno] fly
χ x χάος [ˈxaos] loch (苏格兰)
ç[1] χειρόγραφος [çiˈroɣrafos] (通常) human
ψ ps ψυχοθεραπεία [psixoθeraˈpia] tips
γγ ŋɡ, ŋɣ[7] αγγούρι [aŋˈɡuri]/συγγραφέας [siŋɣraˈfeas] finger
ɲɟ, ɲʝ[1][7] άγγελος [ˈaɲɟelos]/εγγενής [eɲʝeˈnis] angel
γκ ɡ, ŋɡ[7] εγκώμιο [eŋˈɡomio] good, finger
ɟ, ɲɟ[1][7] εγκυκλοπαίδεια [eɲɟikloˈpeðia] argue, angular
γχ ŋx[7] άγχος [ˈaŋxos] often ankh
ɲç[1][7] εγχείριση [eɲˈçirisi] sometimes ankhes
γξ ŋks έλεγξα [ˈeleŋksa] thanks
μπ b, mb[7] εμπάθεια [emˈbaθia] book, amble
ντ d, nd[7] εντάξει [enˈdaksi] duck, under
τσ ts τσάι [ˈtsai] cats
τζ dz τζαζ [ˈdzaz] pads
元音
希腊字母 IPA 示例

义的
英文词汇

古希腊语 现代希腊语
α a a αλφάβητο [alˈfavito] tar, spa
αι aj e 介于 bet bait 之间
ε e ενέργεια [eˈnerʝia]
ει i[8][9] ενέργεια [eˈnerʝia] seem
η ɛː ηθική [iθiˈci]
ι i ιστορία [istoˈria]
υ[10] y υγιεινή [iʝiiˈni]
οι oj οικονομία [ikonoˈmia]
υι uj υιός [iˈos]
ο o o οργανισμός [orɣanizˈmos] hope
ω ɔː ώρα [ˈora]
αυ aw av, af αύρα [ˈavra] /αυθεντικός [afθendiˈkos] [a] then [v] / [f]
ευ ew ev, ef ευρώπη [evˈropi] / ευφορία [efoˈria] [] then [v] / [f]
ηυ ɛːw iv, if εφηύρα [eˈfivra] / ηυξημένος [ifksiˈmenos] [i] then [v] / [f]
ου u ουτοπία [utoˈpia] boot
重音声调
IPA 示例
古希腊语
á Acute: High tone on short vowels
ǎː Acute: Rising tone on long vowels and diphthongs
a Grave: low tone ([à])
âː Circumflex: Falling tone on long vowels and diphthongs
现代希腊语
ˈa άλλος
[ˈalos]
Stress mark: placed before the stressed syllable or vowel.
Represented in monotonic orthography by tonos.
Occurs on one of final three syllables, including any enclitics.

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 ‹γ›, ‹κ›, ‹χ›, ‹γγ›, ‹γκ›, ‹γχ› represent palatal [ʝ c ç ɲɟ ɲç] only before the front vowels [i] and [e]. The velar and palatal series are sometimes analyzed asallophones of a single dorsal series.
  2. ^ Also may have been /zd/.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 [ʎ] and [ɲ] are usually analysed as clusters of/li/and /ni/ respectively, and are also spelled accordingly in Greek orthography. Palatalized pronunciation presupposes the presence of yet another vowel after the palatalized consonant and its following /i/. If there is no subsequent second vowel, palatalization does not occur.
  4. ^ May be a tap [ɾ] intervocalically.
  5. ^ May have been /rʰ/.
  6. ^ ‹σ› represents [z] before [b v m r ɣ] eg:Σμήνος[ˈzminos]
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 γκ, μπ, ντ usually represent [ŋɡ~ɲɟ mb nd] when found in the middle of a Greek word, [ɡ~ɟ b d] when found in any foreign word or in the beginning of the a Greek one. eg: αμπέλι [amˈbeli], μπαμπάς [baˈbas]
  8. ^ The large number of mergers into Modern Greek /i/ is calledIotacism.
  9. ^ Letters normally representing /i/ can also indicate a palatal pronunciation of dorsal consonants when appearing before other vowels: i.e instead of velar [ɣ k x ɡ], palatal [ʝ c ç ɟ] occur (eg: γιαγιά [ʝaˈʝa], κιόλας [ˈcolas], χιόνι [ˈçoni], μαγκιά [maˈɟa]. A similar process has a palatal fricative follow other consonants; [ʝ] follows voiced consonants [v b d ð z r] (eg:χέρια[ˈcerʝa], βαριέμαι [varˈʝeme]) and [ç] follows voiceless consonants [f p θ t s t͡s] (eg:καρφιά [karfˈça], ποιος [pços], ρεβύθια [reˈviθça]). Similarly [ɲ] follows [m] under similar situations (eg: μια [mɲa], καλαμιά [kalaˈmɲa]
  10. ^ When following a vowel, ‹υ› represents a pronunciation with[f] before ‹θ›, ‹κ›, ‹ξ›, ‹π›, ‹σ›, ‹τ›, ‹φ›, ‹χ›, ‹ψ›, and a pronunciation with [v]elsewhere.

外部链接[编辑]