二氧化碳性质表

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二氧化碳干冰的一些性质如下叙述。

基本信息[编辑]

  • 中文名:二氧化碳干冰(固态)
  • 化学式:CO2
  • CAS号:124-38-9(CO2)、1111-72-4(13CO2)、51-90-1(14CO2)、18983-82-9(C(18O)O)、2537-69-1(C(18O)2
  • 英文名:Carbon dioxide
  • 外观:无色气体(标况);气态、液态、水溶液和超临界态均为无色;固态时为无色或白色固体

结构与性质[编辑]

结构与性质
折射率, nD 1.000449 at 589.3 nm and 0 °C [1]
介电常数, εr 1.60 ε0 at 0 °C, 50 atm
C=O键平均键能 804.4 kJ/mol at 298 K(25 °C)[2]
键长 C=O 116 pm (1.16 Å) [來源請求]
键角 O-C-O: 180°
磁化率 ?
表面张力 4.34 dyn/cm at 20 °C
and equilibrium pressure
平衡压力下的液体黏度[3] 0.0925 mPa·s at 5 °C
0.0852 mPa·s at 10 °C
0.0712 mPa·s at 20 °C
0.0625 mPa·s at 25 °C
0.0321 mPa·s at 31.1 °C

热力学性质[编辑]

相性质
三相点 216.58 K(−56.57 °C), 518.5 kPa
临界点 304.18 K(31.03 °C), 7.38 MPa
标准熔化焓变, ΔfusHo 8.647 kJ/mol(三相点)[4]
标准熔化熵变, ΔfusSo ? J/(mol·K)
标准汽化焓变,[5] ΔvapHo 15.326 kJ/mol at 215.7 K(−57.5 °C)
标准汽化熵变, ΔvapSo 70.8 J/(mol·K)
固体性质
标准摩尔生成焓, ΔfHosolid -427.4 kJ/mol
标准摩尔熵,[6]
Sosolid
51.07 J/(mol·K)
热容量,[6] cp

2.534 J/(mol·K) at 15.52 K(−257.63 °C)
47.11 J/(mol·K) at 146.48 K(−126.67 °C)
54.55 J/(mol·K) at 189.78 K(−83.37 °C)

液体性质
标准摩尔生成焓, ΔfHoliquid ? kJ/mol
标准摩尔熵,
Soliquid
? J/(mol K)
热容量, cp ? J/(mol·K)
导热系数[7] 31.0×10-5 cal/cm·s·°C(-20°C)
25.4×10-5 cal/cm·s·°C(0°C)
19.7×10-5 cal/cm·s·°C(20°C)
蒸汽压[7] 19.449 atm(-20°C)
34.397 atm(0°C)
56.525 atm(20°C)71.166(30°C)
气体性质
标准摩尔生成焓, ΔfHogas −393.52 kJ/mol
标准摩尔熵,
Sogas
213.79 J/(mol·K)
热容量,[8] cp

33.89 J/(mol K) at –75 °C
36.33 J/(mol K) at 0 °C
36.61 J/(mol K) at 15 °C
38.01 J/(mol K) at 100 °C
43.81 J/(mol K) at 400 °C
50.87 J/(mol K) at 1000 °C
56.91 J/(mol K) at 2000 °C
53.01 J/(mol K) at 38 °C, 2457 kPa
60.01 J/(mol K) at 38 °C, 5482 kPa
183.1 J/(mol K) at 38 °C, 8653 kPa

绝热指数[8]
γ = cp/cv

1.37 at –75 °C
1.310 at 0 °C
1.304 at 15 °C
1.281 at 100 °C
1.235 at 400 °C
1.195 at 1000 °C
1.171 at 2000 °C

范德华常数[9] a = 363.96 L2 kPa/mol2
b = 0.04267 liter per mole
一氧化碳化学平衡[10]

CO + ½O2 → CO2

K =

pK = log10 K

pK = 45.0438 at T = 298.16 K
pK = 25.0054 at T = 500 K
pK = 16.5383 at T = 700 K
pK = 11.8409 at T = 900 K
pK = 8.8583 at T = 1100 K
pK = 6.7989 at T = 1300 K
pK = 5.2943 at T = 1500 K

溶解度[编辑]

二氧化碳在中的溶解度如下:

CO2在101.3 kPa (1 atm)分压下水中的溶解度[11]
温度 溶解的CO2体积
(每体积H2O)
溶解的CO2质量(克)
(每100毫升H2O)
0 °C 1.713 0.3346
1 °C 1.646 0.3213
2 °C 1.584 0.3091
3 °C 1.527 0.2978
4 °C 1.473 0.2871
5 °C 1.424 0.2774
6 °C 1.377 0.2681
7 °C 1.331 0.2589
8 °C 1.282 0.2492
9 °C 1.237 0.2403
10 °C 1.194 0.2318
11 °C 1.154 0.2239
12 °C 1.117 0.2165
13 °C 1.083 0.2098
14 °C 1.050 0.2032
15 °C 1.019 0.1970
16 °C 0.985 0.1903
17 °C 0.956 0.1845
   
温度 溶解的CO2体积
(每体积H2O)
溶解的CO2质量(克)
(每100毫升H2O)
18 °C 0.928 0.1789
19 °C 0.902 0.1737
20 °C 0.878 0.1688
21 °C 0.854 0.1640
22 °C 0.829 0.1590
23 °C 0.804 0.1540
24 °C 0.781 0.1493
25 °C 0.759 0.1449
26 °C 0.738 0.1406
27 °C 0.718 0.1366
28 °C 0.699 0.1327
29 °C 0.682 0.1292
30 °C 0.655 0.1257
35 °C 0.592 0.1105
40 °C 0.530 0.0973
45 °C 0.479 0.0860
50 °C 0.436 0.0761
60 °C 0.359 0.0576
  • Second column of table indicates solubility at each given temperature in volume of CO2 as it would be measured at 101.3 kPa and 0 °C per volume of water.
  • The solubility is given for "pure water", i.e., water which contain only CO2. This water is going to be acidic. For example, at 25 °C the pH of 3.9 is expected (see carbonic acid). At less acidic pH values, the solubility will increase because of the pH-dependent speciation of CO2.

固态和气态时的蒸汽压[编辑]

P(mm Hg) 1 10 40 100 400 760 1520 3800 7600 15200 30400 45600
P(atm) (2sf,换算自mm Hg) 0.0013 0.013 0.053 0.13 0.53 1.0 2.0 5.0 10 20 40 60
P(kPa)(换算自mm Hg / atm) 0.13 1.3 5.3 13 53 101.325 202.65 506.625 1013.25 2026.5 4053 6079.5
T(°C) –134.3(s) –119.5(s) –108.6(s) –100.2(s) –85.7(s) –78.2(s) –69.1(s) –56.7 –39.5 –18.9 5.9 22.4

表格数据来自《CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics》第44版。注释中的“(s)”表示固体上方蒸气的平衡温度。其余温度均为液体上方蒸汽的平衡温度。 For kPa values, where datum is whole numbers of atmospheres exact kPa values are given, elsewhere 2 significant figures derived from mm Hg data.

CO2蒸汽压的log值,所用公式来自CHERIC[5]

相图[编辑]

Carbon dioxide pressure-temperature phase diagram.svg

液相/气相平衡热力学数据[编辑]

下表列出了液相CO2在不同温度下与气相平衡的热力学数据。Heat content data, heat of vaporization, and entropy values are relative to the liquid state at 0 °C temperature and 3483 kPa pressure. To convert heat values to joules per mole values, multiply by 44.095 grams/mole. To convert densities to moles/liter, multiply by 22.678 cm3-mole/liter-gram. Data obtained from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 44th ed. pages 2560-2561, except for critical temperature line (31.1 °C) and temperatures –30 °C and below, which are taken from Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed. page 1463.

二氧化碳液-气平衡热力学数据
温度
°C
Pvap
蒸汽压
kPa
Hliq
Heat
content
liquid
J/g
Hvap
Heat
content
vapor
J/g
ΔvapHo
Heat of
vapor-
ization
J/g
ρvap
Density
of vapor
g/cm3
ρliq
Density
of liquid
g/cm3
Sliq
Entropy
liquid
J/mol-°C
Svap
Entropy
vapor
J/mol-°C
–56.6 518.3 1.179
–56.0 531.8 1.177
–54.0 579.1 1.169
–52.0 629.6 1.162
–50.0 683.4 1.155
–48.0 740.6 1.147
–46.0 801.3 1.139
–44.0 865.6 1.131
–42.0 933.8 1.124
–40.0 1005.7 1.116
–38.0 1081.9 1.108
–36.0 1161.8 1.100
–34.0 1246.2 1.092
–32.0 1335.1 1.084
-30.0 1428.6 1.075
–28.89 1521 –55.69 237.1 292.9 0.03846 1.0306 –9.48 43.41
–27.78 1575 –53.76 237.3 291.0 0.03987 1.0276 –9.13 43.21
–26.67 1630 –51.84 237.6 289.4 0.04133 1.0242 –8.78 43.01
–25.56 1686 –49.87 237.6 287.5 0.04283 1.0209 –8.45 42.78
–24.44 1744 –47.91 237.8 285.7 0.04440 1.0170 –8.10 42.56
–23.33 1804 –45.94 237.8 283.6 0.04600 1.0132 –7.75 42.36
–22.22 1866 –43.93 237.8 281.7 0.04767 1.0093 –7.40 42.14
–21.11 1928 –41.92 237.8 279.6 0.04938 1.0053 –7.05 41.94
–20.00 1993 –39.91 237.8 277.8 0.05116 1.0011 –6.68 41.71
–18.89 2059 –37.86 237.8 275.7 0.05300 0.9968 –6.31 41.49
–17.78 2114 –35.82 237.6 273.6 0.05489 0.9923 –5.98 41.27
–16.67 2197 –33.73 237.6 271.2 0.05686 0.9875 –5.61 41.05
–15.56 2269 –31.64 237.3 269.2 0.05888 0.9829 –5.26 40.83
–14.44 2343 –29.54 237.3 266.9 0.06098 0.9782 –4.91 40.61
–13.33 2418 –27.41 237.1 264.5 0.06314 0.9734 –4.54 40.39
–12.22 2495 –25.27 236.9 262.2 0.06539 0.9665 –4.17 40.15
–11.11 2574 –23.09 236.7 259.7 0.06771 0.9639 –3.80 39.92
–10.00 2654 –20.90 236.4 257.3 0.07011 0.9592 –3.43 39.68
–8.89 2738 –18.69 235.9 254.8 0.07259 0.9543 –3.06 39.46
–7.78 2823 –16.45 235.7 252.2 0.07516 0.9494 –2.69 39.22
–6.67 2910 –14.18 235.2 249.4 0.07783 0.9443 –2.32 38.98
–5.56 2999 –11.90 234.8 246.6 0.08059 0.9393 –1.94 38.74
–4.44 3090 –9.977 234.3 243.8 0.08347 0.9340 –1.57 38.50
–3.89 3136 –8.410 234.1 242.4 0.08494 0.9313 –1.37 38.37
–2.78 3230 –6.046 233.6 239.7 0.08797 0.9260 –0.98 38.12
–1.67 3327 –3.648 232.9 236.6 0.09111 0.9206 –0.59 37.88
–0.56 3425 –1.222 232.4 233.6 0.09438 0.9150 –0.20 37.62
0.56 3526 1.234 231.7 230.5 0.09776 0.9094 0.20 37.36
1.67 3629 3.728 231.0 227.3 0.1013 0.9036 0.61 37.08
2.78 3735 6.268 230.4 224.0 0.1050 0.8975 1.01 36.83
3.89 3843 8.445 229.4 220.5 0.1088 0.8914 1.42 36.55
5.00 3953 11.46 228.5 217.0 0.1128 0.8850 1.83 36.25
6.11 4067 14.13 227.6 213.4 0.1169 0.8784 2.25 35.98
7.22 4182 16.85 226.5 209.7 0.1213 0.8716 2.69 35.68
8.33 4300 19.63 225.4 205.8 0.1258 0.8645 3.12 35.39
9.44 4420 22.46 224.3 201.8 0.1306 0.8571 3.56 35.07
10.56 4544 25.36 223.1 197.7 0.1355 0.8496 4.02 34.76
11.67 4670 28.33 221.8 193.4 0.1408 0.8418 4.48 34.45
12.78 4798 31.35 220.3 188.9 0.1463 0.8338 4.94 34.11
13.89 4929 34.49 218.8 184.3 0.1521 0.8254 5.42 33.76
15.00 5063 37.30 217.2 179.5 0.1583 0.8168 5.92 33.41
16.11 5200 41.03 215.1 174.4 0.1648 0.8076 6.42 33.02
17.22 5340 44.48 213.6 169.1 0.1717 0.7977 6.96 32.66
18.33 5482 48.03 211.5 163.5 0.1791 0.7871 7.49 32.25
19.44 5628 51.71 209.4 157.6 0.1869 0.7759 8.04 31.83
20.56 5776 55.61 207.0 151.4 0.1956 0.7639 8.63 31.38
21.67 5928 59.66 204.3 144.7 0.2054 0.7508 9.24 30.90
22.78 6083 63.97 201.5 137.5 0.2151 0.7367 9.89 30.39
23.89 6240 68.58 198.4 129.8 0.2263 0.7216 10.57 29.85
25.00 6401 73.51 194.8 121.3 0.2387 0.7058 11.31 29.24
26.11 6565 78.91 190.7 111.8 0.2532 0.6894 12.10 28.60
27.22 6733 84.94 186.0 101.1 0.2707 0.6720 12.99 27.84
28.33 6902 91.88 180.4 88.49 0.2923 0.6507 14.00 26.95
29.44 7081 100.4 173.1 72.72 0.3204 0.6209 15.24 25.85
30.00 7164 105.6 168.4 62.76 0.3378 0.5992 16.01 25.15
30.56 7253 112.3 162.3 50.04 0.3581 0.5661 16.99 24.24
31.1 7391 0.00 0.4641 0.4641
温度
°C
Pvap
蒸汽压
kPa
Hliq
Heat
content
liquid
J/g
Hvap
Heat
content
vapor
J/g
ΔvapHo
Heat of
vapor-
ization
J/g
ρvap
Density
of vapor
g/cm3
ρliq
Density
of liquid
g/cm3
Sliq
Entropy
liquid
J/mol-°C
Svap
Entropy
vapor
J/mol-°C

光谱数据[编辑]

UV-Vis
λmax ? nm
消光系数, ε ?
IR[a]
Major absorption bands[來源請求] 2350 and 667 cm−1

(4.25 and 14.99 um)

NMR
1H NMR 不适用
13C NMR 125.0[12]
MS
Masses of main fragments  

化学反应方程式[编辑]

反应物 反应方程式 反应条件
酸性
CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3 常温、常压
氧化物 CO2 + CaO = CaCO3
CO2 + BaO = BaCO3
氢氧化物 CO2 + 2 NaOH = Na2CO3 + H2O
CO2 + 2 KOH = K2CO3 + H2O
固体或溶液
碳酸盐 CO2 + H2O + Na2CO3 → 2 NaHCO3
CO2 + H2O + K2CO3 → 2 KHCO3
CO2 + H2O + Cs2CO3 → 2 CsHCO3
CO2 + H2O + CaCO3 ⇌ Ca(HCO3)2
溶液
铜、氧气 2 Cu + O2 + CO2 + H2O → Cu2(OH)2CO3(水合物) 潮湿空气
CO2 + 2 NH3NH2COONH4 干燥反应
CO2 + 2 NH3 + H2O → (NH4)2CO3[13] 溶液
弱氧化性
CO2 + C ⇌ 2 CO 高温
CO2 + 2 Mg → 2 MgO + C 点燃
作为弱亲电试剂
金属有机化合物 RMgX + CO2 → RCOOH
苯酚钠 PhONa + CO2Ph(OH)COONa

化学品安全技术说明书[编辑]

二氧化碳的安全技术说明书(MSDS)可以参见此页面

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ Because nitrogen and oxygen are symmetrical and carbon dioxide and water vapor are not, the air in an infrared spectrophotometer may show absorbances for CO2 and water. This is easily overcome by subtracting a blank spectrum from the experimental spectrum, and instruments are often purged with dry nitrogen as well.

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Refractive index of gases. NPL. [7 April 2010]. 
  2. ^ Darwent, B. deB. (1970). "Bond Dissociation Energies in Simple Molecules" Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 31, 52 pages.
  3. ^ Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed. pp 1669-1674
  4. ^ Gas Encyclopaedia. Air Liquide. [1 June 2007]. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Pure Component Properties (Queriable database). Chemical Engineering Research Information Center. [8 May 2007]. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 W.F. Giauque and C.J. Egan, "Carbon Dioxide. The Heat Capacity and Vapor Pressure of the Solid. The Heat of Sublimation. Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Values of the Entropy," Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 5, pp. 45-54, 1937.
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 卢焕章. 石油化工基础数据手册. 北京: 化工出版社
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed, pp 1525-1528
  9. ^ Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed, pp 1522-1524
  10. ^ Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed. pp 1573-1576
  11. ^ Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed., p 1100
  12. ^ Reich, H. J. C-13 Chemical Shifts. Organic Chem Info. University of Wisconsin. [31 May 2015]. (原始内容存档于2015年3月2日). 
  13. ^ 碳酸铵. Chemical Book. [2018-1-18]

不指明时,均指标准状态。其余信息参见Wikipedia:化学信息框