卷棘口吸虫

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卷棘口吸虫
Echinostoma revolutum
兩條染了色的卷棘口吸虫的標本
兩條染了色的卷棘口吸虫的標本
科學分類
界: 动物界 Animalia
門: 扁形动物门 Platyhelminthes
綱: 吸虫纲 Trematoda
目: 棘口目 Echinostomida
科: 棘口科 Echinostomidae
屬: 棘口属 Echinostoma
種: 卷棘口吸虫 E. revolutum
二名法
Echinostoma revolutum
(Froelich, 1802)[1] Looss, 1899

卷棘口吸虫学名Echinostoma revolutum)是一種棘口科棘口属的动物[2][1],可感染人類,令感染者患上棘口吸蟲病(echinostomiasis)[3]的寄生蟲。

分佈[编辑]

本物種是棘口科20個物種當中分佈最為廣泛的一個物種,分布于世界各地[3],营寄生生活[1]。本物種原生地在亞洲,但已着旅客帶到美國及歐洲[3]。在整個美洲大陸跟大洋洲也可以找到本物種的踪影[3]。過往曾有從非洲肯雅坦桑尼亞返到美國的旅客爆發棘口吸蟲病,但病源不明[3]

终末宿主巴西鸭、针尾鸭、琵嘴鸭、绿翅鸭、罗纹鸭、花脸鸭、赤颈鸭、绿头鸭、家鸭、斑嘴鸭、紫膀鸭、澳洲鸭、白眉鸭、灰雁、家鹅等以及寄生于直肠、盲肠和小肠[1]

外型簡述[编辑]

本物種是一條好像拉長了的樹葉的蟲,平均身長約 8.8 mm (8.0–9.5 mm)及 1.7 mm 闊(1.2–2.1 mm)[3]。當牠們剛從糞便裡排出人體時,呈粉紅色,卷曲成小楷拉丁字母「c」或「e」字的形狀[3]。當蟲卵還在蟲身的子宮時,長度平均只有 105 μm (97–117 μm)及 63 μm 闊(61–65 μm)[3]

生命週期[编辑]

這種蟲的感染通常都是因為吃了​受蟲體感染而又未經徹底煮熟的螺、蝸牛或蛙類,而這三種動物都是這種蟲的中間宿主[3]。 This parasite is predominantly found throughout North America. Two asexual generations occur in a snail or mollusk. The first snail host is penetrated by a miracidium, producing a sporocyst. Many sporocysts are produced and mother rediae emerge. Mother rediae asexually reproduce daughter rediae, which also multiply. Each rediae then develop into a cercariae, which penetrates a second host. The second host could be another snail or a tadpole, in which development into metacercaria occurs. Cercariae typically find a snail host through chemotaxis. The cercariae are attracted to the slime of the snail, which contains small peptides. The first larval stage is the miracidium, and are found to be attracted to macrocmolecular glycoconjugates associated with a possible snail host. Environmental stimuli such as light and gravity can also be used to assist in searching for a host.[來源請求]

本物種的中間宿主計有:

For example in Pursat Province, Cambodia the children were fond of eating undercooked snails or clams of unidentified species sold on the road to their homes after school.[3] It was a source of infection in humans.[3]

對人類健康的影響[编辑]

Prevalence[编辑]

The first reported human infection was in Taiwan in 1929.[3][7] The prevalence of Echinostoma revolutum flukes in Taiwan during 1929–1979 varied from 0.11% to 0.65%.[3] Small Echinostoma revolutumendemic foci or a few cases of human infection were discovered in the People's Republic of China, Indonesia, and Thailand until 1994.[3] However, no information is available about human Echinostoma revolutum infection after 1994, even in areas where the parasite was previously endemic.[3] The prevalence of infection with Echinostoma revolutum flukes ranged from 7.5% to 22.4% in 4 schools surveyed in Pursat Province, Cambodia, tested fecal specimens from 471 children, 10–14 years of age, in June 2007.[3] Authors reported echinostomiasis as an endemic trematode infection among schoolchildren in Pursat.[3]

病徵[编辑]

Signs of infection in humans due to this type of fluke can result to weakness and emaciation. In cases where infection is heavy, hemorrhagic enteritis can occur.[來源請求]

診斷[编辑]

卷棘口吸虫的診斷可透過在顯微鏡下尋找藏在患者糞便中的蟲卵。

Prevention[编辑]

Treatment[编辑]

Albendazole[來源請求] and praziquantel[3] are typically prescribed to rid the parasite from the body.

参考文献[编辑]

Template:Research help

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 中国科学院动物研究所. 卷棘口吸虫. 《中国动物物种编目数据库》. 中国科学院微生物研究所. [2009-04-16]. 
  2. ^ Kelly, Cynthia. Echinostoma revolutum. 2009 [2009]. 
  3. ^ 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Lee, Soon-Hyung. Echinostoma revolutum Infection in Children, Pursat Province, Cambodia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011, 17 (1): 117–9. doi:10.3201/eid1701.100920. PMC 3204640. PMID 21192870 (英语). 
  4. ^ Soldanova, Miroslava; Selbach, Christian; Sures, Bernd; Kostadinova, Aneta; Perez-Del-Olmo, Ana. Larval trematode communities in Radix auricularia and Lymnaea stagnalis in a reservoir system of the Ruhr River. Parasites & Vectors. 2010, 3: 56. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-3-56 (英语). 
  5. ^ http://wildlife1.wildlifeinformation.org/S/0zAPlat_Trematod/Echi_Echi_Echinostoma/Echinostoma_revolutum.htm accessed 22 October 2008
  6. ^ Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Nguyen, Van De. Echinostoma revolutum: Metacercariae in Filopaludina Snails from Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam, and Adults from Experimental Hamsters. The Korean Journal of Parasitology. 2011, 49 (4): 449–55. doi:10.3347/kjp.2011.49.4.449. PMC 3279689. PMID 22355218 (英语). 
  7. ^ Anazawa, K. On a human case of Echinostoma revolutum and its infection route. 台灣醫外科雜誌Taiwan Igakkai Zasshi). 1929, 288: 221–41 (日语). 

外部連結[编辑]