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地球暖化爭議

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Global mean land-ocean temperature change from 1880–2012, relative to the 1951–1980 mean. 黑線是每年平均,紅線是5年移動平均。The green bars show uncertainty estimates. 來源:NASA GISS
Map of temperature changes across the world
key to above map of temperature changes
The map shows the 10-year average (2000–2009) global mean temperature anomaly relative to the 1951–1980 mean. The most extreme warming was in the Arctic. Source: NASA Earth Observatory[1]
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Fossil fuel related CO2 emissions compared to five of the IPCC's "SRES" emissions scenarios. The dips are related to global recessions. Image source: Skeptical Science.

地球暖化爭議是指全球变暖事件在道德、社會及政治等多個方面的爭議。近年大眾對地球暖化的重視程度明顯提升[2]。人們對地球暖化原因的各項科學解釋高度關注,同時引起了政治與經濟上的辯論。雖然貧窮地區,特別是非洲的排放量很微小,但卻面對著全球变暖所帶來的極大風險[3]。同時,美國不滿發展中國家能夠免除京都協議書的約束,並且以這個為拒絕簽署協議書的理由[4]。在西方社會中,相比美國歐洲有很多人接納了人類對氣候的影響及努力對抗变暖[5][6]

化石燃料組織及公司譬如由菲利普·庫尼英语Philip Cooney及某些智庫競爭企業協會英语Competitive Enterprise Institute卡托研究所所代表的美國石油學會艾克森美孚利用一些運動來淡化全球变暖的風險[7][8][9][10]環保團體及公眾人物則舉行運動來強調當中的風險。最近,一些化石燃料公司已經減少了淡化運動[11],甚至呼籲制定避免全球变暖的政策。[12]

這個議題促發了關於限制工業的溫室氣體排放對經濟活動的影響的辯論。在美國,對科學證據及報告作政治操控也成了重要的議題。[13][14]其他國家則更會討論為了減排而採取另外一些更潔淨能源時所需要的成本。[15]

其他爭論焦點則在於一些新興工業國家如印度及中國在控制排放的力度應該有多大。2007年,中國的二氧化碳排放量已经超越美國,中國辯稱因為中國人均排放量是美國的三分之一(2010年),所以在減排上沒有很大責任。美國辯稱如果他們必要承擔減排成本,中國也要。[16][17]印度也快將成為工業排放的大國之一,將會與中國一樣面對同樣的問題。[18]

參看[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ 2009 Ends Warmest Decade on Record. NASA Earth Observatory Image of the Day, 22 January 2010.
  2. ^ Weart, Spencer, The Public and Climate Change, (编) Weart, Spencer, The Discovery of Global Warming, American Institute of Physics, 2006 [2007-04-14] 
  3. ^ Revkin, Andrew. Poor Nations to Bear Brunt as World Warms. The New York Times. 2007-04-01 [2007-05-02]. 
  4. ^ Brahic, Catherine. China's emissions may surpass the US in 2007. New Scientist. 2006-04-25 [2007-05-02]. 
  5. ^ Crampton, Thomas. More in Europe worry about climate than in U.S., poll shows. International Herald Tribune. 2007-01-04 [2007-04-14]. 
  6. ^ Summary of Findings. Little Consensus on Global Warming. Partisanship Drives Opinion. Pew Research Center. 2006-07-12 [2007-04-14]. 
  7. ^ Begley, Sharon. The Truth About Denial. Newsweek. [2007-08-08]. 
  8. ^ Adams, David. Royal Society tells Exxon: stop funding climate change denial. The Guardian. 2006-09-20 [2007-08-09]. 
  9. ^ Exxon cuts ties to global warming skeptics. MSNBC. 2007-01-12 [2007-05-02]. 
  10. ^ Sandell, Clayton. Report: Big Money Confusing Public on Global Warming. ABC. 2007-01-03 [2007-04-27]. 
  11. ^ Greenpeace: Exxon still funding climate skeptics. USA Today. 2007-05-18 [2007-07-09]. 
  12. ^ Global Warming Resolutions at U.S. Oil Companies Bring Policy Commitments from Leaders, and Record High Votes at Laggards (新闻稿). Ceres. April 28, 2004 [2007-07-27]. 
  13. ^ Holzer, Jessica. Global warming becomes hot topic on Capitol Hill. The Hill. 2007-01-18 [2007-05-02]. 
  14. ^ Zabarenko, Deborah. U.S. rejects 'high cost' global warming scenarios. Reuters. 2007-05-04 [2007-05-04]. 
  15. ^ EU agrees on carbon dioxide cuts. BCC. 2007-03-09 [2007-05-04]. 
  16. ^ Chinese object to climate draft. BBC. 2007-01-05 (英语). 
  17. ^ Steven Mufson. In Battle for U.S. Carbon Caps, Eyes and Efforts Focus on China. Washington Post. 2007-06-06 (英语). 
  18. ^ Somni Sengupta. India's glaciers give grim message on warming. New York Times via oregonlive.com. 2007-07-17 (英语). 

外部連結[编辑]