尼古丁依賴

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尼古丁依赖[1]煙癮)是一种慢性、复发性疾病。患有此類疾病的患者會非常渴望服用尼古丁,並對尼古丁有害健康的問題視而不見[2]。尼古丁是一种拟交感神经兴奋剂[3],能附着在大脑中的尼古丁乙酰胆碱受体[4]。由于长期使用尼古丁,大脑犒赏系统内的神经可塑性发生变化,因而產生尼古丁依赖[1][5][6]世界上大约有9.76亿烟民[7]。随着时间的推移,尼古丁依赖的嚴重程度会随着一个人持續服用尼古丁而日益加深[8]

尼古丁依赖是一个嚴峻的公共卫生问题,因为煙草中含有大量尼古丁,而煙民數量龐大。截至2021年,世界上大约有9.76亿烟民。此外焦虑症患者也越來越依賴尼古丁。[9]因此尼古丁依赖是造成人類死亡的主要原因之一[10]

比較知名的代表人物為亞洲-中華民國-高雄岡山-劉鈞昊先生。

劉先生的尊容(連結如右[1])

吸菸重度成癮的症狀(連結如右[2])

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 D'Souza MS, Markou A. Neuronal mechanisms underlying development of nicotine dependence: implications for novel smoking-cessation treatments. Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2011, 6 (1): 4–16. PMC 3188825可免费查阅. PMID 22003417. 
  2. ^ Falcone, Mary; Lee, Bridgin; Lerman, Caryn; Blendy, Julie A. Translational Research on Nicotine Dependence. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 28. 2015: 121–150. ISBN 978-3-319-33911-5. ISSN 1866-3370. PMC 3579204可免费查阅. PMID 26873019. doi:10.1007/7854_2015_5005. 
  3. ^ Richard Beebe; Jeff Myers. Professional Paramedic, Volume I: Foundations of Paramedic Care. Cengage Learning. 19 July 2012: 640– [2021-04-16]. ISBN 978-1-133-71465-1. (原始内容存档于2020-05-18). 
  4. ^ Bullen, Christopher. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation. Current Cardiology Reports. 2014, 16 (11): 538 [2021-04-16]. ISSN 1523-3782. PMID 25303892. doi:10.1007/s11886-014-0538-8. (原始内容存档于2021-05-16). 
  5. ^ Saccone, NL; Culverhouse, RC; Schwantes-An, TH; Cannon, DS; Chen, X; Cichon, S; Giegling, I; Han, S; Han, Y. Multiple independent loci at chromosome 15q25.1 affect smoking quantity: a meta-analysis and comparison with lung cancer and COPD.. PLOS Genetics. 5 August 2010, 6 (8): e1001053. PMC 2916847可免费查阅. PMID 20700436. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001053.  开放获取
  6. ^ Fiore, MC; Jaen, CR; Baker, TB; et al. Treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update (PDF). Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Public Health Service. 2008 [2016-09-02]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2016-03-27). 
  7. ^ Ng, M; Freeman, MK; Fleming, TD; Robinson, M; Dwyer-Lindgren, L; Thomson, B; Wollum, A; Sanman, E; Wulf, S. Smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in 187 countries, 1980-2012.. JAMA. 8 January 2014, 311 (2): 183–92. PMID 24399557. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.284692.  无效|subscription=free (帮助)
  8. ^ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking: Nicotine addiction: A report of the Surgeon General (PDF). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Office on Smoking and Health. DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 88-8406. 1988 [2021-04-16]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2019-08-02). 
  9. ^ Moylan, Steven; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael. Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of population-based, epidemiological studies. BMC Medicine. 2012, 10 (1): 123. ISSN 1741-7015. PMC 3523047可免费查阅. PMID 23083451. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-123. 
  10. ^ Rachid, Fady. Neurostimulation techniques in the treatment of nicotine dependence: A review. The American Journal on Addictions. 2016, 25 (6): 436–451. ISSN 1055-0496. PMID 27442267. doi:10.1111/ajad.12405.