德內-高加索語系

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德內-高加索語系
有争议的超语系
地理分佈: 不连续地分布于歐亞大陸北美大陆
谱系学分类 德内-台语系(?)
  • 德內-高加索語系
原始語言: 原始德内-高加索语英语Proto-Dené–Caucasian language
分支:
伊特鲁利亚语英语Tyrsenian languages(有时包括)
苏美尔语(有时包括)
阿尔吉克语系(不常包括)
Glottolog
Dené-Caucasian.JPG

德内-高加索语系(Dené-Caucasian),或译作達內-高加索語系,亦称汉-高加索语系(Sino–Caucasian)[注 1],是一个假设的超语系,包括汉藏语系布鲁夏斯基语叶尼塞语系北高加索語系、北美的纳-德内语系,甚至是欧洲的瓦斯科尼亚语系英语Vasconic languages(包括巴斯克语)。有时苏美尔语阿尔吉克语系阿尔冈昆-瓦卡希语系英语Algonquian–Wakashan languages)也被归入其中。该语系存在与否还处在争议中,大部分关于该超语系的研究在20世纪90年代之后才开始展开。

2008年语言学家Edward Vajda英语Edward Vajda提出了一个范围更小的超语系假说,即德內-葉尼塞語系,该假说认为西伯利亚的叶尼塞语系与北美的纳-德内语系存在同源关系,该假说获得了许多历史语言学家的认可。但至今,多数语言学家仍对德內-高加索語系假说持怀疑或否定态度。[1][2][3][4][5]

研究历史[编辑]

20世紀時,特隆贝蒂英语Alfredo Trombetti薩丕爾布雷齐斯特内英语Robert Bleichsteiner斯瓦迪士托普洛夫英语Vladimir Toporov等學者先後提出類似於德內-高加索语系的假说,并对该问题进行了相关探索。20世纪80年代,苏联语言学家斯塔罗斯金提出汉-高加索语系假说,指出高加索语、叶尼塞语和汉藏语可能具有同源关系,并提供了大量的语言学证据[6]。80年代末,本特森也加入到这项假说的研究中来。

汉-高加索语系的成员自该假说提出后就不断扩充。1991年,尼古拉耶夫证明了高加索语与纳-德内语的发生学关系,从而在该超语系假说中加入纳-德内语[7]。1996年,本特森英语John Bengtson瓦斯科尼亚语系英语Vasconic languages(这一语系包括巴斯克语阿基坦语甚至是伊比利亚语英语Iberian language)纳入该超語系假说中,1997年,本特森又将布魯夏斯基語纳入。扩充后的假说被称为“德內-高加索語系”。[8]

2005年,斯塔罗斯金进一步提出“德內-台语系”假说,该假说假定德內-高加索語系和澳语系为德內-台语系的两个分支,这个更为宏大的假说将汉藏语、北高加索语、侗台语苗瑶语南亚语南岛语等许多语系包含进来。斯塔罗斯金还猜测德內-台语系可能于公元前一万年分化,形成了德內-高加索語系和澳语系两大分支[9]

存在证据[编辑]

以斯塔罗斯金为首的莫斯科学派坚信“基本词汇对应是证明发生学关系的关键”,他们因此以语言年代学为基础,依照词汇对应等为证据对德內-高加索语系展开论证,但是他们并不注重考古学等旁证[9]。至2005年,斯塔罗斯金提供了956组词汇对应形式,以证明汉藏语、高加索语等语言之间存在同源关系。其中有一部分词汇原始形态存在明显的相似,如:[10]

词汇 原始高加索语 原始汉藏语
*pɨrV *phur~*bhur
毛发 *c'ɦěme *chām
毛发 *kɨ̌wrV *kra
叶子 *tˡ'ǎp *lǎp

有些词汇原始形态不甚近似,但在高加索语中的语音变化却与汉藏语一致,如“血”一词在高加索语系的达吉语中读 "ħi" ,而在汉藏语系的杜密语中读 "hi" [10]。除词汇对应外,斯塔罗斯金及其同事还发现了高加索语与汉藏语之间的数种语音对应和形态对应形式。在语音对应方面,斯塔罗斯金认为原始德内-高加索语边塞音/tˡ//dˡ/在原始汉藏语中分化,词首保留边音/l//tˡ/,词尾则变成软腭音/k/;斯塔罗斯金亦发现原始高加索语的紧音与叶尼塞语的喉塞音/ʔ/对应,并猜测这种对应与原始德内-高加索语的超音段成分有关。[11]

語系樹建議[编辑]

斯塔罗斯金及其同事的觀點[编辑]

斯塔罗斯金等莫斯科学派语言学家坚信人类语言的单一起源论,并开展了名为“巴別塔計劃”的研究项目,斯塔罗斯金本人提出了“汉-高加索语系”并认为納-德內語可能属于汉-高加索语系,其同事则展开了汉-高加索语系与納-德內語等其它语系的比较。[8]根据研究成果,斯塔罗斯金及其同事整理出如下的谱系树,并通过修订语言年代学估算了德內-高加索語系各语言的分化时间[12]

德内-高加索语系
公元前8700年
汉-瓦斯科尼亚语
Sino-Vasconic
公元前7900年
汉-高加索语系
公元前6200年
高加索-汉-叶尼塞语
公元前5900年
汉-叶尼塞语
公元前5100年

汉藏语系
Sino-Tibetan

叶尼塞语系
Yeniseian

北高加索语系
North Caucasian

布鲁沙斯基语
Burushaski

瓦斯科尼亚语系英语Vasconic languages
Vasconic

納-德內語系
Na-Dené

本特森的觀點[编辑]

本特森(John D. Bengtson)把巴斯克語高加索語布魯夏斯基語組合成為大高加索語系(Macro-Caucasian family)[13]。本特森并未对大高加索语系之外的德內-高加索語系分支画出详细的谱系树,而是将这些分支暂时直接放在德內-高加索語系之下,因为他认为目前对这些分支的研究尚不成熟。本特森也留意到蘇美爾語在地理上與其西支及東支分享着相同的等語線[8][14]

德内-高加索语系
Dené-Caucasian
大高加索语族
The Macro-Caucasian family
巴斯克-高加索语

瓦斯科尼亞語系
Vasconic

北高加索语系
North Caucasian

布鲁沙斯基语
Burushaski

苏美尔语(可能)
Sumerian

汉藏语系
Sino-Tibetan

叶尼塞语系
Yeniseian

纳-德内语系
Na-Dené

参见[编辑]

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ 汉-高加索语系的范围与德内-高加索语系有所不同,汉-高加索语系通常不包括納-德內語和瓦斯科尼亚语系,见该章节

引用[编辑]

  1. ^ Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Blench, Roger; Ross, Malcolm D.; Peiros, Ilia; Lin, Marie. Past Human Migrations in East Asia: Matching Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics. 2008-07-25. ISBN 9781134149629. 
  2. ^ Campbell, Lyle英语Lyle Campbell (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 286-288
  3. ^ Goddard, Ives英语Ives Goddard (1996). "The Classification of the Native Languages of North America". In Ives Goddard, ed., "Languages". Vol. 17 of William Sturtevant, ed., Handbook of North American Indians. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. pg. 318
  4. ^ Trask, R. L.英语Larry Trask (2000). The Dictionary of Historical and Comparative Linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pg. 85
  5. ^ Dalby, Andrew (1998). Dictionary of Languages. New York: Columbia University Press. pg. 434
  6. ^ 参见 Starostin 1984, Starostin 1991
  7. ^ 参见 Nikola(y)ev 1991
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 李艳 2012,第237-239页
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 李艳 2012,第241页
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 李艳 2012,第242-247页
  11. ^ 李艳 2012,第248-251页
  12. ^ 參见 The preliminary phylogenetic tree according to the Tower of Babel Project
  13. ^ Bengtson 1997a
  14. ^ Bengtson 1997b

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外部链接[编辑]