本页使用了标题或全文手工转换

海達語

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索
海達語
Xaat Kíl
母语国家和地区 加拿大 (夏洛特皇后群岛), 阿拉斯加州 (威爾士親王島_(阿拉斯加州))
族群 海達人
母语使用人数 第1語言: 55人(1995年)
語系
文字 拉丁字母
官方地位
作为官方语言 Haida flag.png 海達民族委員會
管理机构 無官方機構
語言代碼
ISO 639-2 hai
ISO 639-3 hai——囊括代码英语ISO 639 macrolanguage
各项代码:
hdn-北海達語
hax-南海達語
Haida lang.png
歐洲殖民前的海達語分佈
本条目包含国际音标符号。部分操作系统浏览器需要特殊字母与符号支持才能正確显示,否则可能显示为乱码、问号、空格等其它符号。

海達語(Xaat Kíl)是海達族的語言。該語言有8個元音和超過30個輔音。語言學家愛德華·薩丕爾曾在1915年把海達語歸為納-德內語系,該提議隨即受到諸多語言學家(如Pinnow, Greenberg, Enrico, Ruhlen, Manaster Ramer, and Bengtson,詳見參考文獻列表)的支持;然而,今天大多數語言學家將海達語看作是一个孤立语言[1] 2008年語言學界提議美洲的納-德內語系北亚(中西伯利亞)的叶尼塞语系同源並構成德內-葉尼塞語門[2] 却没有任何跡象表明海達語屬於該語門。

大约100年前,全體海達族都使用海達語,[3]但今天海達語却是極度瀕危語言,只有40個人在使用,[4] 而其幾乎都是老人家。[5][6]

書寫系統[编辑]

海達語語有兩套基於拉丁字母的書寫系統:在加拿大常用的,约翰·恩里科(John Enrico)提出的恩里科系統,用來書寫南海達語;在美國常用的,阿拉斯加原住民族語言中心Alaska Native Language Center)提出的ANLC系統,用來書寫北海達語。

  • ANLC系統區分兩個同位異音[t͡ʃ](英語的ch)和[ts](漢語拼音的c)。
  • 恩里科系統是一種跨方言文字(儘管只跨了兩個加拿大方言),它在不同方言中給了不同的語音影射,使得在兩种方言中發音相同的詞有著不同的寫法,而寫法相同的詞有著不同的發音。[7]

此外還有一個不常用的系統,由John R. Swanton給出。[7]它更像是基於语音的,而不像是基於音位的。

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ Schoonmaker, Peter K.; Bettina Von Hagen, Edward C. Wolf. The Rain Forests of Home: Profile Of A North American Bioregion. Island Press. 1997: 257. ISBN 1559634804. 
  2. ^ Dene-Yeniseic Symposium
  3. ^ UBC World Language Fair’s HAIDA webpage. [2008-05-23]. 
  4. ^ Alaska Native Language Population and Speaker Statistics. 1 January 1999 [2008-03-17]. 
  5. ^ Ethnologue report for language code:hdn. [2008-03-17]. 
  6. ^ Haida Language Mainpage. [2008-05-23]. 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Ways of Writing Haida

參考文獻[编辑]

延伸閱讀[编辑]

  1. Andersen, Doris. 1974. "Slave of the Haida." Toronto: Macmillan Co. of Canada.
  2. Bengtson, John D. (2008), "Materials for a Comparative Grammar of the Dene–Caucasian (Sino-Caucasian) Languages." Aspects of Comparative Linguistics, vol. 3, Moscow: RSUH Publishers, pp. 45–118
  3. Dauenhauer, Nora Marks. 2008. "The Battles of Sitka, 1802 and 1804, Anooshi Lingit Aani Ka, Russians in Tlingit America." University of Washington Press.
  4. Dawson, George M. Vocabulary of the Haida Indians of the Queen Charlotte Islands (microform). Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive. 1880 [2012-08-26]. 
  5. Dürr, Michael & Egon Renner. 1995. The History of the Na-Dene Controversy: A Sketch. Language and Culture in North America: Studies in Honor of Heinz-Jürgen Pinnow, ed. by Renner, Egon & Dürr, Michael. 3-18. (Lincom Studies in Native American Linguistics 2). Munich: Lincom Europa.
  6. Enrico, John. 1983a. "The Haida Language." The Outer Shores, edited by Scudder, G. E. and Gessler, Nicholas. Queen Charlotte City, B.C.: Queen Charlotte Islands Museum Press. pp. 223–248.
  7. Enrico, John. 1983b. "Tense in the Haida Relative Clause." International Journal of American Linguistics 52:91–123.
  8. Enrico, John. 1986. "Word Order, Focus and Topic in Haida." International Journal of American Linguistics 49:136–166.
  9. Enrico, John. 1991. The Lexical Phonology of Masset Haida. (Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers, 8.) Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center.
  10. Enrico, John. 1998. "Remarks on Pitch in Skidegate Haida." Gengo Kenkyu 12:115–120.
  11. Enrico, John. 2003. Haida Syntax. (2 volumes). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
  12. Enrico, John. 2005. Haida Dictionary: Skidegate, Masset, and Alaskan Dialects. (2 volumes). Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center; Juneau: Sealaska Heritage Institute.
  13. Fisher, Robin. 1992. "Contact and Conflict: Indian-European Relations in British Columbia, 1774–1890." UBC Press.
  14. Greenberg, J.H. 1987a. Language in the Americas. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  15. Greenberg, J.H. 1987b. "The Na-Dene Problem". In Greenberg (1987a), pp. 321–330.
  16. Harrison, Charles. 1925. "Ancient Warriors of the North Pacific; The Haidas, Their Laws, Customs and Legends." London, H. F. & G. Witherby.
  17. Harrison, Charles; Royal Society of Canada. Haida grammar (microform). Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive. 1895 [2012-08-26]. 
  18. Hibben & Carswell. Dictionary of Indian tongues (microform) : containing most of the words and terms used in the Tshimpsean, Hydah, & Chinook, with their meaning or equivalent in the English language. Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive. 1865 [2012-08-26]. 
  19. Keen, John Henry. A grammar of the Haida language. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge; Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive. 1906 [2012-08-26]. 
  20. Levine, Robert D. 1979. Haida and Na-Dene: A New Look at the Evidence. International Journal of American Linguistics 45(2).157–70.
  21. Manaster Ramer, Alexis. 1996. "Sapir's Classifications: Haida and the Other Na Dene languages." Anthropological linguistics 38:179–215.
  22. Pinnow, Heinz-Jürgen. 1976. Geschichte der Na-Dene-Forschung. (Indiana : Beihefte; 5). Berlin: Mann. ISBN 3-7861-3027-2
  23. Pinnow. H-J. 1985. Das Haida als Na-Dene Sprache. (Abhandlungen der völkerkundlichen Arbeitsgemeinschaft, Hefte 43–46.) Nortorf, Germany: Völkerkundliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft.
  24. Pinnow. H-J. 2006a. Die Na-Dene-Sprachen im Lichte der Greenberg-Klassifikation. / The Na-Déné Languages in Light of Greenberg's Classification. Zweite erweiterte Auflage / Second revised edition. Bredstedt: Druckerei Lempfert.
  25. Pinnow. H-J. 2006b. Sprachhistorische Untersuchung zur Stellung des Haida als Na-Dene-Sprache. (Unveränderte Neuausgabe aus INDIANA 10, Gedenkschrift Gerdt Kutscher. Teil 2. Berlin 1985. Mit einem Anhang = Die Na-Dene-Sprachen im Verhältnis zum Tibeto-Chinesischen.) Bredstedt: Druckerei Lempfert.
  26. Rosman, Abraham. 1971. "Feasting with Mine Enemy: Rank and Exchange among Northwest Coast Societies" Columbia University Press.
  27. Ruhlen M. 1998. "The Origin of the Na-Dene". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95, no. 23: 13994-6.
  28. Sapir, Edward. 1915. The Na-Dene Languages: A Preliminary Report. American Anthropologist 17.534–558.
  29. Stearns, Mary Lee. 1981. "Haida Culture in Custody." University of Washington Press.
  30. Swanton, John R. 1905. Haida Texts and Myths. Skidegate dialect. (Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 29.) Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  31. Swanton, John R. 1908. Haida Texts. Masset Dialect. (Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 10, part 2.) Leiden: E. J. Brill.

外部連結[编辑]