科学建模

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科学建模的例子。 A schematic of chemical and transport processes related to atmospheric composition.

科學建模是一種藉由已被廣泛接受的科學以幫助我們了解定義量化視覺化仿真的科學活動。依據不同需求,在真實世界中萃取相關要素以建立適合的科學模型,像是藉由概念模型以幫助我們了解現象,操作模型以給出操作型定義數學模型以幫助量化,並且用圖象模型視覺化抽象概念。

建模是許多科學領域中的非常重要且不可分割的一部份,並且每種科學領域都有其特定的科學模型[1][2]。以約翰·馮·諾伊曼所說過的一段話為例[3]

... 科學本身從來都不曾試圖去解釋自然現象,甚至是連詮釋自然現象的企圖都不曾有過,反而僅僅是建立模型。所謂的模型,就是——在數學意義上——去建構觀察到的自然現象之間的數學關係。而此模型令人信服的唯一理由,就僅僅是因為它確實有用——能夠描述足夠廣泛的自然現象。

科學建模已逐漸在受重視[4],例如在科學教育[5]科學哲學系統理論視覺化 (電腦圖學)。科學建模也有其相關的科學方法、技術與形上學等議題。

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Cartwright, Nancy. 1983. How the Laws of Physics Lie. Oxford University Press
  2. ^ Hacking, Ian. 1983. Representing and Intervening. Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press
  3. ^ von Neumann, J. (1995), "Method in the physical sciences", in Bródy F., Vámos, T. (editors), The Neumann Compendium, World Scientific, p. 628; previously published in The Unity of Knowledge, edited by L. Leary (1955), pp. 157-164, and also in John von Neumann Collected Works, edited by A. Taub, Volume VI, pp. 491-498.
  4. ^ Frigg and Hartmann (2009) state: "Philosophers are acknowledging the importance of models with increasing attention and are probing the assorted roles that models play in scientific practice". Source: Frigg, Roman and Hartmann, Stephan, "Models in Science", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), (source)
  5. ^ Namdar, Bahadir; Shen, Ji. Modeling-Oriented Assessment in K-12 Science Education: A synthesis of research from 1980 to 2013 and new directions. International Journal of Science Education. 2015-02-18, 37 (7): 993–1023. ISSN 0950-0693. doi:10.1080/09500693.2015.1012185.