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语调升阶
语调降阶
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国际音标编号 510, 511
编码
HTML码 十进制 ↗​↘
Unicode 十六进制 U+2197 U+2198

语调英语:intonation、音高),又稱語氣口氣,是指说话者交談發聲音調,即说话者依據個人心情(态度、個性),讓声调的高低轻重音調,再附加上發聲的高低轻重音調;前者是文法上的音調、後者是心情上的音調。

示例[编辑]

例如在汉语中,接到对方的電話,然後回應:「喂,你是谁?」,这样一句话,套上不同的语调,則会給人有不同的感受;說話者的语气平缓,表示心情较为平和或较为克制;說話者的语气高降调、重音明顯,表示心情不好或性格较为急躁。

參考文獻[编辑]

  • Интонация. Русская грамматика I. 科學出版社 (俄羅斯). 1980.  (俄文)
  • Bolinger, D. (1951) ‘Intonation – levels versus configurations’, Word 7, 199–200
  • Brazil (1975) Discourse Intonation, University of Birmingham: English Language Research
  • Brazil, Coultheart and Johns (1980) Discourse Intonation and Language Teaching, Longman
  • Celce-Murcia, M., D. Brinton and J. Goodwin (1996) Teaching Pronunciation, Cambridge University Press
  • Cooper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth, Introduction to English Prosody, 1986, Edward Arnold
  • Cruttenden, A. (1997) Intonation (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press
  • Crystal, D. (1969) Prosodic Systems and Intonation in English, Cambridge University Press
  • Crystal, D. (1975) 'Prosodic features and linguistic theory', in The English Tone of Voice, Edward Arnold
  • Crystal, D. and R. Quirk (1964) Systems of Prosodic and Paralinguistic Features in English, Mouton
  • Gussenhoven, C. (2004). The Phonology of Tone and Intonation, Cambridge University Press.
  • Halliday, M.A.K. (1967) Intonation and Grammar in British English, Mouton
  • Halliday, M.A.K., and Greaves, W.S., Intonation in the Grammar of English, London, Equinox, 2008.
  • Hirst, D.J. & Di Cristo, A. (eds) 1998. Intonation Systems. A survey of Twenty Languages. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press). [[[国际标准书号|ISBN]] 0521395135 (Hardback); ISBN 0-521-39550-X (Paperback)].
  • Jones, Daniel (1964) An Outline of English Phonetics, Heffer.
  • Ladd, D. Robert. (2009). Intonational Phonology, 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press.
  • Lee, W.R. (1958) English Intonation: A New Approach, North-Holland
  • Lian, A-P. Intonation Patterns of French, River Seine Publications, Melbourne, 1980. http://www.andrewlian.com/andrewlian/prowww/ipf_teacher/ipf_teacher.pdf
  • Liu F, Patel AD, Fourcin A, Stewart L. (2010). Intonation processing in congenital amusia: discrimination, identification and imitation. Brain. 133(Pt 6):1682–93. doi:10.1093/brain/awq089 PubMed
  • Michaud, A. and J. Vaissière (2015). Tone and intonation: introductory notes and practical recommendations. KALIPHO - Kieler Arbeiten zur Linguistik und Phonetik 3. 43–80. https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01091477v3/document
  • O'Connor, J.D. and G.F. Arnold (1961, 1973) The Intonation of Colloquial English, Longman
  • Palmer, H.E. (1922) English Intonation with Systematic Exercises, Heffer.
  • Pierrehumbert, Janet B. (1980) "The Phonology and Phonetics of English Intonation" Ph.D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, published by Indiana Linguistics Club 1987.
  • Pike, K.L. (1945) The Intonation of American English, University of Michigan Press.
  • Roach, Peter (2009) English Phonetics and Phonology, (Fourth Edition), Cambridge University Press.
  • Schack, Katrina. "Comparison of intonation patterns in Mandarin and English for a particular speaker", University of Rochester Working Papers in the Language Sciences, Spring 2000, no. 1: p. 29. http://www.bcs.rochester.edu/cls/s2000n1/schack.pdf
  • Shen, Xiao-nan Susan. The Prosody of Mandarin Chinese. Vol. 118 of University of California Publications in Linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. p. 95.
  • Trager, G. and H.Smith (1951) An Outline of English Structure, American Council of Learned Societies.
  • Trager, G. (1964) 'The intonation system of American English', in Abercrombie D. et al. In Honour of Daniel Jones, Longman
  • Wells, J.C. (2006) English Intonation: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press.

外部連接[编辑]