豹紋壁虎

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豹紋壁虎
四個月大的豹紋壁虎
四個月大的豹紋壁虎
保护状况
科學分類
界: 動物界 Animalia
門: 脊索動物門 Chordata
綱: 爬行綱 Reptilia
目: 有鳞目 Squamata
亞目: 蜥蜴亞目 Lacertilia
科: 壁虎科 Gekkonidae
亞科: 擬蜥蜴亞科 Eublepharinae
屬: 擬蜥屬 Eublepharis
種: 豹紋擬蜥 E. macularius
二名法
Eublepharis macularius
Blyth, 1854
Eublepharis macularius distribution.png

豹紋守宮学名Eublepharis macularius)又稱豹紋擬蜥豹紋壁虎,因身體上的花紋類似豹紋而得名。廣泛分佈於中亞地區,一般生活在乾旱的灌木林裡,多以昆蟲為食。近年來,一些青少年越來越喜歡飼養稀奇古怪的寵物,而蜥蜴壁虎爬行動物也成為了熱門寵物。豹紋壁虎體色奇特、性格溫馴,因此成了一些寵物愛好者的理想選擇。由於不少不法商人捕捉豹蚊壁虎到寵物市場上出售,加上產地的灌木林不斷被人類破壞,使豹紋壁虎的生存出現了危機。

豹紋守宮(Eublepharis macularius)是地棲性和晨昏性的蜥蜴,通常能在亞洲的高原地區和阿富汗北印度一帶被發現。不像大部分的守宮,豹紋守宮具有可活動的眼瞼,它也不能夠爬到高處。它已經發展成一種能夠以人工飼養的寵物。

分類[编辑]

豹紋守宮第一次被描述是由動物學家Edward Blyth在1854年以Eublepharis macularius的學名描述[1]屬名Eublepharis希臘文的混合字,「eu-」代表「好的」和「-blepharos」 代表「眼瞼」, 擁有眼瞼是豹紋守宮的特徵,也是區分它和其他亞科的守宮的方式,他們的足也缺少像壁虎的奈米結構,皮膚不光滑、崎嶇和晨昏性的習性[2]種小名macularius 則是從拉丁文中的「macula」意思是「斑點」、「污漬」,形容本種生物天然的斑點狀斑紋。 豹紋守宮和很多守宮都具關聯,如肥尾守宮和banded守宮。Eublepharis屬下有4個物種其中一種曾被分類為另一種的亞種,因此,豹紋守宮有5個亞種。

分布[编辑]

豹紋守宮的原棲地是岩地、乾草原和南亞(阿富汗巴基斯坦、西北印度伊朗的部分地區)的沙漠地區。這些地區冬季的溫度可以到10°C(50 °F)以下,使的地底下的動物進入半冬眠狀態(brumation),單純靠儲存的脂肪存活。豹紋守宮是晨昏性的爬蟲類,他們白天在巢穴中休息,並等到黃昏或清晨,等到溫度適宜的時候活動[3]。豹紋守宮獨來獨往,而且通常不會和其他動物同居[4]

食性[编辑]

豹紋守宮會取食於蟋蟀蟑螂麵包蟲大麥蟲和其他昆蟲。在人工飼養環境下,大部分的個體偏好於自己獵食,大部分的豹紋守宮拒絕進食屍體。蟋蟀是人工飼養環境下最普遍的食物,豹紋守宮可以在飼養區中獵食蟋蟀就像他們在天然棲地中一般,麵包蟲或是杜比亞蟑螂(或是其他蟑螂)也是常見的食物來源。當食物短缺,他們可以依靠平時儲存在尾部中的脂肪度過。人工飼養時,補充鈣和維他命D3很重要。他們在自然環境中如何取得鈣和D3還不明確,不過他們有可能是透過取食多變化的獵物,如蜘蛛螞蟻和其他昆蟲來獲得。但是在人工飼養下,完整複製他們在野外的食物是近乎不可能的,所以用已知富含最多養分的昆蟲,佐以鈣粉和維他命D3,有時甚至會餵食昆蟲特定食物來提高養分。豹紋守宮再填滿肚子前會持續進食,而剩下來的昆蟲會對豹紋守宮造成一些麻煩,尤其是蟋蟀會嚙咬守宮的尾巴[5]。豹紋守宮利用敏銳的嗅覺和視覺在野外中尋找獵物,他們會像其他蜥蜴一樣慢慢靠近獵物,搖動尾巴,並在準備好時出擊[4]

特徵[编辑]

幼體豹紋守宮的近照

豹紋守宮的體型比其他的守宮物種還要大,剛孵化的個體大小通常介於6.5到8.4CM(2.6到3.3英吋),體重大約是3公克,成體大約是20.5到27.5CM(8.1到10.8英吋),體重則是45到65公克。野外的個體體色通常較為暗沉、灰暗、黃褐,人工飼養的個體則不然。人工飼養的個體通常都是特別培育的品系,無論是顏色或是斑紋。豹紋守宮的皮膚非常堅韌,可以保護他們免於粗砂粒和岩地的傷害,也就是他們原生棲地的乾燥環境,他們的背部布滿小隆起,讓他們的背部顯得粗糙,然而腹部皮膚則是透光、薄、光滑。如同所有的爬蟲類一般,豹紋守宮會蛻皮,在脫皮前幾天,她的皮膚會從原本的顏色變成透明的灰白色[6]。成體平均一個月脫一次皮,幼體脫皮頻率較高,有時候甚至一個月會脫兩次[7]。守宮會把脫下來的舊皮吃掉,露出底下那層鮮豔的皮膚[8]。關於守宮吃掉自己舊皮的理論有二 : 在野外吃掉自己的舊皮來隱藏自己的行蹤[6];另一理論則是舊皮能提供蛋白質和其他維他命[7]

豹紋守宮是外溫動物,他們在白天,在他們睡眠時吸收溫度和能量好在夜間狩獵並消化食物。他們的腿較短,使得他們迅速又敏捷,他們的指爪讓他們能夠爬上枝條和岩石。豹紋守宮的頭部兩側有開孔,也就是耳孔,耳孔有一層鼓膜包覆和保護,他們透過耳孔來定位獵物。健康的豹紋守宮的尾巴粗且厚;細細的尾巴代表豹紋守宮不健康。在人工飼養下,可以透過餵食蠟蟲(蠟蛾的幼蟲)來加粗他的尾巴,但是蠟蟲通常含有太多的脂肪,不能夠充分提供守宮需要的養分[9]。豹紋守宮也可以餵食乳鼠(日齡大)來加粗尾巴,但就如同蠟蟲,乳鼠的養分較單一,營養價值較低。專業的繁殖者建議餵食豹紋守宮裹上營養粉末的蟋蟀。守宮的尾巴斷落後可以再生,然後再生尾顯得較為短胖,而且永遠不會和最初的外表相同[4]

Eublepharis屬和其他守宮不同,他們的腳趾上沒有奈米結構,所以他們無法爬上光滑的表面。

正在脫皮的豹紋守宮,守宮吃掉脫下來的皮。點擊上面的連結來觀看影片。
一隻擁有再生尾的守宮

Teeth[编辑]

Leopard geckos are polyphyodonts and able to replace each of their 100 teeth every 3 to 4 months.[10] Next to the full grown tooth there is a small replacement tooth developing from the odontogenic stem cell in the dental lamina.[11]

Tails[编辑]

Leopard geckos are not immune to injury, and their tails often take the brunt. In the wild, if a severe injury occurs to a Leopard gecko's tail it will shrink until the injured part is shed off. For pet geckos, if injury necessitates an amputation of the tail, it will also shrink.

Chromatophores and color pigmentation[编辑]

An example of a group of chromatophores.

Leopard geckos range in color from a yellow to brownish-orange base with spots covering all or mostly half of the dorsal region of the body. Their color is derived from pigment-containing cells known as chromatophores. These cells are responsible for an array of coloration seen in all reptiles, amphibians, birds and some species of insects. Chromatophores come in a variety of types based on the color they correspond to. Chromatophore types include xanthophores (responsible for yellow coloration), erythrophores (responsible for red coloration), iridophores (responsible for iridescence), leucophores (responsible for white coloration), melanophores (responsible for black coloration), and cyanophores (responsible for blue coloration). The skin of wild leopard geckos contains xanthophores (yellow) and melanophores (black spots). Designer leopard geckos may possess erythrophores and leucophores since commercial breeding and artificial selection have allowed novel coloration to arise.

Defense mechanisms[编辑]

Leopard geckos have predators such as snakes, foxes, and other large reptiles. Their keen sense of hearing and sight help them escape from them during the night. Along with their exceptional sight and hearing abilities, their skin helps camouflage themselves from their predators. Their sense of taste and smell also helps them with survival. They also stay in underground holes and burrows during the daytime, not only to avoid the heat but to also avoid the risk of getting eaten.[4]

Leopard geckos also have the ability to voluntarily detach their tails if it is attacked, grabbed by the tail, bitten during copulation, or nipped by another during feeding. This is called caudal autotomy. After autotomy the tail can continue to twitch for as long as 30 minutes, allowing the gecko to escape from its predator.[12][13] The tail is large and at least in one related species (Christinus marmoratus) it has been reported that the tail-less fleeing gecko makes for a quicker getaway.[14] Fractures in the tailbone allow the tail to separate easily and rapid vasoconstriction allows the gecko to suffer minimal blood loss. This detaching of the tail causes a high level of stress on the gecko due to the loss of the valuable storage of fat it once had.[15] It will start to regenerate its tail immediately because it is needed for survival. A lost tail may increase the chance of sickness in the gecko and in some cases kill it, but this is very rare.[4] Regenerated tails often retain similar colors to the original tail [though there will most likely be a wide variance from the vibrancy and patterns of the original], however, they are often smooth and lack the rigid qualities and length of a normal tail. The tail will also be shorter and often fatter than the previous tail.

Sexual dimorphism[编辑]

A small female

Sexual dimorphism is defined as a phenotypic difference between males and females of a species. It can be commonly found in animals, such as the leopard gecko and other reptiles.[16] It exists in adult males and females, but can be difficult to determine in young geckos. The underside of a gecko truly determines the sex of the gecko. Males have pre-anal pores and hemipenal bulges while females have smaller pores and do not have external bulges.[4]

Males can determine the sex of other leopard geckos by smelling pheromones on their skin. Males respond to males with aggressive behavior while they demonstrate courtship behavior towards females. Towards other males, the male would raise itself up from the ground, extend his limbs, and arch his back with the swelling of the tongue in aggression. He will then make short dashes and quick, vigorous bites, which frequently lacerate the skin and sometimes severely injure his opponent. Males behave the same way towards females while they are shedding their skin. Before and after the shedding of the skin, the males still express courtship behavior towards the females.[17]

Reproduction[编辑]

Leopard geckos are also known to have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Research shows that more females can be produced in predominantly cool temperatures (about 26~29 °C [79~84 °F]) and very warm temperatures (about 34~35 °C [93~95 °F]). It was recorded that males can be produced at the intermediate temperatures (about 31~33 °C [88~91 °F]). Determination of sex is believed to be set during the first two weeks of incubation. Females born in the higher temperatures differed from those who were born in the lower temperatures hormonally and behaviorally. Those born in the warmer temperatures expressed more aggressive behavior.[18] These are known as "hot females" and are often determined to be infertile.

Leopard geckos will breed typically in the summer. Females can store sperm over the course of their breeding season, so they can produce up to three clutches from one or two copulations, therefore, the male is not needed for reproductive success after the first or second copulation.[19] Once the female has mated and received sperm, she will need an abundance of calcium for health and to ensure that the eggs calcify properly. She can lay about six to eight clutches, which consists of two eggs in each clutch. They will normally lay two eggs approximately 21 to 28 days after mating. After 45 to 60 days, droplets of moisture will appear on the shell and the shell will begin to shrink and partially collapse. These are indications that the eggs will hatch. Baby leopard geckos will have an "egg tooth", a calcareous tip at the end of its snout to help break their egg shell. Their "egg tooth" will fall off within one to two days. In addition to this, their skin will usually shed within 24 hours of hatching. The leopard gecko hatchling will not be able to eat until after the first shedding.[4]

Conditions and diseases[编辑]

Captive born and bred leopard geckos do not carry any diseases that are transmissible to humans. Salmonella is not an issue because they live in a dry environment and the disease usually occurs in aquatic or semi-aquatic species kept in unsanitary housing conditions.[20] However, there are several common diseases that leopard geckos may experience.

  • Gastroenteritis, caused by bacterial or protozoan (especially Cryptosporidium) infection brought on by such things as unsanitary conditions, can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea. As a result, geckos may present with watery and/or bloody stool. Normally the stool is dry and well-formed with a small white portion. It is contagious and can be spread easily. Other symptoms of the disease include weight loss, a skinny tail, undigested cricket masses. If it is not treated, the gecko will stop eating, become dehydrated and scrawny, and possibly die.[4]
  • Metabolic bone disease or MBD is a nutritional deficiency caused by a lack of calcium and vitamin D3 in the diet. Calcium and vitamin D3 are critical for proper bone formation during development and for proper calcification of eggs for a gravid female. Geckos with MBD will experience symptoms such as weakness, bones becoming spongy, deformities in their limbs and spine, twitching or tremors, and a lack of appetite. Recovering from this disease can be very difficult.[4]
  • Anorexia in leopard geckos can be caused by stress, unsanitary conditions, nutritional diseases, or other diseases. Anorexic leopard geckos appear thin, develop an extremely thin tail, become weak and sluggish, stop eating, and usually, die if untreated.[4]
  • Dysecdysis is a condition in which a leopard gecko has problems shedding its skin due to poor nutrition, lack of humidity and moisture, and poor care. Incompletely shed skin will appear as dry patches on various areas of the body such as the head, eyes, limbs, and tail. Leopard geckos with this condition may develop eye problems, have difficulty in walking, and noticeable constricting bands of old skin around their limbs. If the condition is not treated, it could lead to infection.[4]
  • Pneumonia is a severe respiratory tract infection that can be caused by bacteria in the lungs. Leopard geckos may be susceptible to this if their environment is too cool and humid thus compromising their immune system. Mucus bubbles appear in the nostril area of geckos with pneumonia, and they have difficulty breathing. The problem is usually resolved when the environment temperature rises to about 82至85 °F(28至29 °C).[4]
  • Sand impactions and prolapse can occasionally occur. This condition may result if a leopard gecko ingests sand or other substrates they live on.[4]
  • Glaxemiona is a rare heart disease caused infection brought on by poor conditions, or exposure from injuries. It spreads in close quarters but has difficulty spreading to further away areas. It normally kills within 2 weeks. Some symptoms are; not eating, in-active, shuddering, and a glassy look.

Leopard geckos as a pet[编辑]

Leopard geckos are one of the most popular lizard pets. They are possibly the first domesticated lizard species.[21][22] Their small size, robustness, and relatively easy care makes them a good "beginner" reptile pet.[23] They breed easily in captivity, so most sold today are captive-bred rather than wild-caught.

Many morphs—color or pattern variations, and occasionally size variations—have been bred. Some of the morphs include three different strains of albino, patternless, blizzard, jungle, hypomelanistic, tangerine, giant, and snow. Since many of the morphs are unrelated gene sequences, various combinations, such as patternless albino and mack snow albino, have also been bred. Patternless, hypomelanistic, and blizzard morphs primarily involve the reduction or loss of dark spots. Giant is a size morph, giants are considerably larger than normal leopard geckos. Jungle morphs involve a change in the arrangement or pattern of dark areas. Snow morphs typically have normal dark spots, but little or no yellow pigment. Tangerine morphs have an orange pigment on part of their body, typically the head and/or tail.[來源請求]

Leopard geckos should be fed insects, such as crickets and mealworms, because they are insectivores (they eat insects). Unlike other popular lizards, for example Pogona "bearded dragon" species, they do not eat plant matter and this should not be offered to them. For more details about what leopard geckos eat, see Diet.

References[编辑]

  1. ^ Pockman, R. 1854. Proceedings of the Society. Report of the Curator, Zoological Department.. Saurologica. 1976, (2): 1–15. 
  2. ^ http://www.herpcenter.com/leopard-gecko-care/leopard-gecko-taxonomy.html
  3. ^ Courteney-Smith, John. Lighting for a mixed leopard gecko colony (PDF). Practical Reptile Keeping. June 2012: 32–33. 
  4. ^ 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 Hamper, R. The Leopard Gecko, Eublepharis macularius, in Captivity. MI: ECO Herpetological Publishing & Distribution. 2004. ISBN 0971319782. 
  5. ^ http://www.myalbinoleopardgecko.com
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Bartlett, R.D.; Bartlett, Patricia. Leopard and Fat-Tailed Geckos. Barron's Educational Series, Inc. 1999: 26–27. ISBN 0-7641-1119-1. 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Leopard Gecko FAQ. [9 October 2010]. 
  8. ^ Leopard Gecko Care Sheet | Petco. www.petco.com. [2017-08-22] (英语). 
  9. ^ Tanwall, Martin. Gecko Pets – Quick Fact Guide. Geckos for Pets. 2011 [11 January 2011]. 
  10. ^ Mechanism of tooth replacement in Leopard geckos 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期12 March 2015[日期不符].
  11. ^ Identification of putative dental epithelial stem cells in a lizard with lifelong tooth replacement
  12. ^ Ta-da!. Audubon Magazine. [15 April 2013]. 
  13. ^ Higham, T. E.; Russell, A. P. Flip, flop and fly: Modulated motor control and highly variable movement patterns of autotomized gecko tails. Biology Letters. 2009, 6 (1): 70–73. PMC 2817253. PMID 19740891. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0577. 
  14. ^ Daniels, Christopher B. Running: an escape strategy enhanced by autotomy. Herpetologica. 1983, 39 (2): 162–165. JSTOR 3892556. 
  15. ^ Smith, Pauline. Leopard Gecko Care Sheet. The Gecko Spot. 2004 [15 April 2013]. 
  16. ^ Kratochvil, L.; Frynta, D. Body Size, Male Combat and the Evolution of Sexual Dimorphism in Eublepharid Geckos (Squamata: Eublepharidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 2002, 76 (2): 303–314. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8312.2002.00064.x. 
  17. ^ Mason, R.T.; Gutzke, W.H.N. Sex Recognition in the Leopard Gecko, Eublepharis macularius (Sauria: Gekkonidae) Possible Mediation by Skin-Derived Semiochemicals. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 1990, 16 (1): 27–36. doi:10.1007/BF01021265. 
  18. ^ Viets, B.E.; Tousignant, A.; Ewert, M.A.; Nelson, C.E.; Crews, D. Temperature Dependent Sex Determination in the Leopard Gecko, Eublepharis macularius. The Journal of Experimental Zoology. 1993, 265 (6): 679–683. PMID 8487018. doi:10.1002/jez.1402650610. 
  19. ^ LaDage, L.D.; Ferkin, M.H. Do Conspecific Cues Affect Follicular Development in the Female Leopard Gecko (Eublepharis macularius)?. Behaviour. 2008, 145 (8): 1027–39. doi:10.1163/156853908784474506. 
  20. ^ http://www.reptilia.org/pdfs/habitarium/HabitariumPrograms-GeckoQuickFactSheet.pdf
  21. ^ de Vosjoli, Philippe; Klingenberg, Roger; Tremper, Ron; Viets, Brian. The Leopard Gecko Manual. BowTie, Inc. 2004: 5. ISBN 1-882770-62-5. 
  22. ^ Palika, Liz. Leopard Geckos for Dummies. Wiley. 2011. ISBN 978-1-11806-827-4. 
  23. ^ McLeod, Lianne. Geckos as Pets. about.com. [19 June 2012]. 

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