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2012年夏季奥林匹克运动会奖牌榜

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Olympic rings with white rims.svg 2012年奥运会
国际奥委会 · 英国奥委会 · 奥组委
金色表示該國代表團獲得至少1枚金牌
銀色表示該國代表團獲得至少1枚銀牌
棕色表示該國代表團獲得至少1枚銅牌
藍色表示該國代表團未能獲得任何奖牌
紅色表示該國沒有參加本屆奧運會

2012年夏季奥林匹克运动会獎牌榜列出参与本届奥运会并获得奖牌的队伍与其所得奖牌枚数。依照国际奥林匹克委员会的官方排名榜排列,即首先衡量金牌枚数的多少,银牌次之,最后对比铜牌枚数。而北美洲則以獎牌總數來決定排名。若两支或以上的队伍在同一时间拥有相同的金、银、铜牌枚数,则排同一名次,并采用国际奥委会發佈的国家编码,依首字母顺序进行排列。巴林,[1] 波札那,[2] 賽普勒斯[3] 加蓬[4] 格瑞那達 (金牌)、[5] 瓜地馬拉[6]蒙特內哥羅[7]獲得首面奧運獎牌。 在之前的奧運會中,蒙特內哥羅也為塞爾維亞與蒙特內哥羅南斯拉夫代表團獲得獎牌。 一位運動員塞爾維亞以獨立的國家奧委會獲得首面奧運金牌,然而之前該國也為塞爾維亞與蒙特內哥羅南斯拉夫代表團獲得金牌。[8] 在2016年重新藥檢之後,摩爾多瓦失去所有獎牌及喀麥隆的獲得所有獲得的獎牌。

獎牌榜[编辑]

Key

  *   Host nation (Great Britain)

  ‡   Changes in medal standings (see below)

  • (Note. The table includes the official changes in medal standings, but does not include the possible changes announced in 2015 (see below). IOC has not yet decided on these cases and has not yet stripped the medals.)
2012年夏季[9]
 排名  NOC 金牌 银牌 铜牌 總數
1 美国 46 28 29 103
2 中國 38 29 21 88
3 英国* 29 17 19 65
4 俄罗斯 20 19 31 70
5 韩国 13 9 8 30
6 德国 11 19 14 44
7 法国 11 11 13 35
8 澳大利亚 8 15 12 35
9 義大利 8 9 11 28
10 匈牙利 8 4 6 18
11 日本 7 14 17 38
12 荷兰 6 6 8 20
13 乌克兰 6 4 9 19
14 新西兰 6 2 5 13
15 伊朗 5 6 2 13
16 古巴 5 3 7 15
17 西班牙 4 10 4 18
18 牙买加 4 4 4 12
19 捷克 4 3 3 10
20 朝鲜 4 0 2 6
21 巴西 3 5 9 17
22 埃塞俄比亚 3 2 2 7
23 南非 3 2 1 6
24 哈薩克 3 1 6 10
25 克羅埃西亞 3 1 2 6
26 白俄羅斯 2 5 3 10
27 罗马尼亚 2 5 2 9
28 肯尼亚 2 4 6 12
29 丹麥 2 4 3 9
30 亞塞拜然 2 2 6 10
波兰 2 2 6 10
32 瑞士 2 2 0 4
33 立陶宛 2 1 2 5
34 挪威 2 1 1 4
35 突尼西亞 2 0 1 3
36 加拿大 1 6 11 18
37 瑞典 1 4 3 8
38 哥倫比亞 1 3 4 8
39 格鲁吉亚 1 3 3 7
墨西哥 1 3 3 7
41 土耳其 1 2 1 4
42 爱尔兰 1 1 4 6
43 阿根廷 1 1 2 4
塞尔维亚 1 1 2 4
斯洛文尼亚 1 1 2 4
46 特立尼达和多巴哥 1 1 2 4
47 多明尼加 1 1 0 2
48 烏茲別克 1 0 2 3
49 拉脱维亚 1 0 1 2
中華台北 1 0 1 2
51 阿爾及利亞 1 0 0 1
巴哈馬 1 0 0 1
格林纳达 1 0 0 1
乌干达 1 0 0 1
委內瑞拉 1 0 0 1
56 埃及 0 3 1 4
57 印度 0 2 4 6
58 蒙古 0 2 3 5
59 泰国 0 2 2 4
60 印尼 0 2 1 3
61 斯洛伐克 0 1 3 4
62 比利時 0 1 2 3
芬兰 0 1 2 3
64 亞美尼亞 0 1 1 2
保加利亞 0 1 1 2
爱沙尼亚 0 1 1 2
马来西亚 0 1 1 2
波多黎各 0 1 1 2
69 波札那 0 1 0 1
賽普勒斯 0 1 0 1
加蓬 0 1 0 1
危地马拉 0 1 0 1
蒙特內哥羅 0 1 0 1
葡萄牙 0 1 0 1
75 希腊 0 0 2 2
卡塔尔 0 0 2 2
新加坡 0 0 2 2
78 阿富汗 0 0 1 1
巴林 0 0 1 1
中国香港 0 0 1 1
喀麥隆 0 0 1 1
沙特阿拉伯 0 0 1 1
科威特 0 0 1 1
摩洛哥 0 0 1 1
塔吉克 0 0 1 1
摩尔多瓦 0 0 0 0
Total (85 NOCs) 300 300 354 954

獎牌數變化列表[编辑]

因為2016年重新檢驗的結果顯示23人藥檢未過,再變動不少獎牌。[10]

2016年重驗結果顯示該屆奧運會舉重比賽16名選手藥檢結果為陽性,其中13名為獎牌得主。[11]


從2015年至2016年10月18日為止,俄羅斯已因為禁藥醜聞被追回13面奧運獎牌[10]同時也造成下屆奧運會被禁止參與田徑與舉重項目。

List of official changes[编辑]

Ruling date Sport/Event NOC 1 2 3 Total Comment
List of official changes in medal standings (during the Games)
13 August 2012 Athletics
Women's shot put
白俄羅斯 −1 −1 On 13 August 2012, the IOC stripped Belarusian athlete Nadzeya Ostapchuk of her gold medal in the women's shot put after she tested positive for the anabolic steroid metenolone. As a result, New Zealand silver medallist Valerie Adams was awarded gold, Russian bronze medallist Yevgeniya Kolodko was awarded silver, and the fourth-placed Gong Lijiao from China was awarded bronze.[12]
新西兰 +1 −1 0
俄罗斯 +1 −1 0
中國 +1 +1
List of official changes in medal standings (after the Games)
6 November 2012 Wrestling
Men's freestyle 74 kg
烏茲別克 −1 −1 On 6 November 2012, the IOC stripped Uzbek wrestler Soslan Tigiev of his bronze medal in the men's freestyle 74 kg division after he tested positive for the banned stimulant methylhexaneamine.[13] Hungary's Gábor Hatos was elevated to the bronze medal position.[14]
匈牙利 +1 +1
1 May 2013 Athletics
Women's discus throw
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 1 May 2013, the Russian Anti-Doping Agency confirmed that Russian discus thrower Darya Pishchalnikova had been banned for 10 years and stripped of her silver medal in the women's discus throw after testing positive for oxandrolone (an anabolic steroid).[15] China's Li Yanfeng will be elevated to silver and Cuba's Yarelys Barrios will be awarded bronze.[16][17] The IOC has decided on the case and reallocated the medals in 2015.[18][19]
中國 +1 −1 0
古巴 +1 +1
20 May 2015 Athletics
Men's 4 × 100 metres relay
美国 −1 −1 In May 2014, the US 4 × 100 metres relay team member Tyson Gay received a one-year suspension for anabolic steroid use and was stripped of his medals after 15 July 2012 when he first used.[20] In May 2015, the IOC wrote to US Olympic Committee telling them to collect the medals from teammates Trell Kimmons, Justin Gatlin, Ryan Bailey, Jeffery Demps and Darvis Patton.[21] Two of Gay's teammates who ran with him in the final, Kimmons and Bailey, had previously also served suspensions. The medals were reallocated, with Trinidad and Tobago awarded silver, and France taking bronze.[22][23]
特立尼达和多巴哥 +1 −1 0
法国 +1 +1
17 August 2015 Athletics
Women's 1500 metres
土耳其 −1 −1 On 17 August 2015, the Court of Arbitration for Sport says it approved a settlement agreed to by Turkish athlete Aslı Çakır Alptekin, Turkish Athletic Federation and the IAAF.[24] Alptekin has agreed to forfeit her 1500 metres Olympic title and serve an eight-year ban for blood doping.[25] IOC has not yet confirmed the redistribution of the medals in this event.[26] When reallocating medals, the IOC has previously elected not to advance athletes with a history of doping violations.
24 March 2016 Athletics
Men's 50 kilometres walk
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 24 March 2016, the Court of Arbitration for Sport issued a decision that all competitive results obtained by Sergey Kirdyapkin from 20 August 2009 to 15 October 2012 are disqualified.[27] The IOC has confirmed the stripping of Sergey Kirdyapkin's gold medal in the men's 50 km walk.[28] On 17 June 2016, the Court of Arbitration for Sport overturned the Russian decision in March.Template:Explain As a result, Australian walker Jared Tallent was awarded the gold, China's Si Tianfeng was awarded the silver and Ireland's Robert Heffernan awarded the bronze.[29]
澳大利亚 +1 −1 0
中國 +1 −1 0
爱尔兰 +1 +1
24 March 2016 Athletics
Women's 20 kilometres walk
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 24 March 2016, the Court of Arbitration for Sport issued a decision that all competitive results obtained by Olga Kaniskina from 15 August 2009 to 15 October 2012 are disqualified and stated that the possible re-allocation of medals is a matter for IAAF to determine.[30] IOC has confirmed the stripping of Olga Kaniskina's silver medal in women's 20 km walk but has not yet confirmed the redistribution of the medals in this event.[31]
4 June 2016 Athletics
Women's 3000 metres steeplechase
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 30 January 2015, the Russian Anti-Doping Agency confirmed that runner Yuliya Zaripova was serving a back-dated ban and her Olympic gold medal placing in the 3,000 metres steeplechase had already been annulled, after testing positive for anabolic steroids. Tunisia's Habiba Ghribi was in line for the reallocated gold medal, Ethiopia's Sofia Assefa for the silver, and Kenya's Milcah Chemos Cheywa for the bronze.[32] On 24 March 2016, the Court of Arbitration for Sport disqualified Yuliya Zaripova for doping and confirmed that she would be stripped of her gold medal.[33] On 4 June 2016, the gold medal was officially reallocated to second place Habiba Ghribi from Tunisia by the IOC,[34] and the IAAF updated the results. Marta Dominguez from Spain was also disqualified.[35] On 5 June 2016, Ghribi received her gold medal.[33][36]
突尼西亞 +1 −1 0
埃塞俄比亚 +1 −1 0
肯尼亚 +1 +1
List of official changes in medal standings (2016 wave of retesting)
13 July 2016 Weightlifting
Women's 58 kg
乌克兰 −1 −1 On 13 July 2016, the IOC announced that Yuliya Kalina of Ukraine has been disqualified from the 2012 Summer Olympics and ordered to return the bronze medal from the 58 kg weightlifting event. Reanalysis of Kalina's samples from London 2012 resulted in a positive test for the prohibited substance dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (turinabol).[37] The IOC requested the IWF to modify the results of this event accordingly, and the IWF did so by publishing the name of Rattikan Gulnoi of Thailand as the third-place finisher.[38]
泰国 +1 +1
9 August 2016 Athletics
Men's javelin throw
乌克兰 −1 −1 On 9 August 2016, the IOC announced that Oleksandr Pyatnytsya of Ukraine would be stripped of his silver medal in the javelin throw after he tested positive for the prohibited substance dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (turinabol).[39] The IOC requested the IAAF to modify the results of this event accordingly.[40] On 22 February 2017, Antti Ruuskanen received the silver medal in Finland [41]. Vítězslav Veselý received the bronze medal during Golden Spike Ostrava on 28 June 2017. [42]
芬兰 +1 −1 0
捷克 +1 +1
20 August 2016 Athletics
Women's shot put
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 20 August 2016, the IOC announced that Yevgeniya Kolodko of Russia would be stripped of her silver medal in shot put after she tested positive of dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (turinabol) and ipamorelin.[43] The IOC requested the IAAF to modify the results of this event accordingly. Kolodko had been upgraded to a silver medal during the 2012 London games after the first-place finisher had been stripped of her gold medal for doping.
11 October 2016 Athletics
Women's hammer throw
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 11 October 2016, Tatyana Lysenko of the Russian Federation was disqualified from the women's hammer throw, in which she won the gold medal. She had tested positive for a banned substance. The IOC requested the IAAF to modify the results of this event accordingly. The silver medalist Anita Włodarczyk of Poland would likely take the gold medal in her place.[44]
18 October 2016 Weightlifting
Men's 85 kg
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 18 October 2016, the IOC disqualified Apti Aukhadov of the Russian Federation for doping and stripped him of the silver medal.[10] The IOC requested the IWF to modify the results of this event accordingly; it has not yet published modified results.[38]
伊朗 +1 −1 0
埃及 +1 +1
27 October 2016 Weightlifting
Women's 53 kg
哈薩克 −1 −1 On 27 October 2016 the IOC disqualified a further eight athletes for failing doping tests at the games. This included 4 medal winners including Zulfiya Chinshanlo, Maiya Maneza and Svetlana Podobedova all from Kazakhstan, and Maryna Shkermankova of Belarus.[45]
中華台北 +1 −1 −1
印尼 +1 +1
乌克兰 +1 +1
Weightlifting
Women's 63 kg
哈薩克 −1 −1
Weightlifting
Women's 75 kg
哈薩克 −1 −1
西班牙 +1 +1
埃及 +1 +1
喀麥隆 +1 +1
Weightlifting
Women's 69 kg
白俄羅斯 −1 −1
哈薩克 +1 +1
21 November 2016 Weightlifting
Men's 94 kg
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 21 November 2016 the IOC disqualified a further 12 athletes for failing doping tests at the games. This included 6 medal winners in weightlifting including Alexandr Ivanov (Russia), Anatoli Ciricu (Moldova), Cristina Iovu (Moldova), Nataliya Zabolotnaya (Russia), Iryna Kulesha (Belarus), Hripsime Khurshudyan (Armenia).[46] Moldova has lost all its London-2012 medals.
摩尔多瓦 −1 −1
韩国 +1 +1
Weightlifting
Women's 53 kg
摩尔多瓦 −1 −1
Weightlifting
Women's 75 kg
俄罗斯 −1 −1
Weightlifting
Women's 75 kg
白俄羅斯 −1 −1
Weightlifting
Women's +75 kg
亞美尼亞 −1 −1
韩国 +1 +1
25 November 2016 Weightlifting
Men's 94 kg
哈薩克 −1 −1 On 21 November 2016 the IOC disqualified Ilya Ilin for failing anti-doping test.[47]
伊朗 +1 +1
29 November 2016 Athletics
Women's heptathlon
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 29 November 2016 the Court of Arbitration for Sport has issued decision that all competitive results of Tatyana Chernova between 15 August 2011 and 22 July 2013 are annulled.[48]
1 February 2017 Athletics
4 × 400 metres relay
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 1 February 2017, the Russian 4 × 400 metres relay women's team was disqualified due doping of Antonina Krivoshapka [49]
10 February 2017 Athletics
Women's 800 metres
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 10 February 2017, the Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld a four-year ban that effectively stripped of the gold medal of Mariya Savinova, based upon her biological passport.[50]
29 March 2017 Athletics
Women's 1500 metres
土耳其 −1 −1 On 29 March 2017, Turkish Gamze Bulut was banned for doping and lost its Olympic silver medal .[51] Previously, on 17 August 2015, the Court of Arbitration for Sport Turkish athlete Aslı Çakır Alptekin lost the Olympic title and serve an eight-year ban for blood doping.[25] Fourth-placed finisher Russian Tatyana Tomashova has a previous doping violation and fifth-placed Ethiopian Abeba Aregawi, later representing Sweden was suspended for doping violation on 29 February 2016.[52]
5 April 2017 Weightlifting
Women's 63 kg
俄罗斯 −1 −1 On 5 April 2017, the IOC disqualified the Russian weightlifter Svetlana Tsarukayeva due to use of turinabol [53]


List of official changes by country
NOC Gold Silver Bronze Total
俄罗斯 −4 −7 −2 −13
哈薩克 −4 0 1 −3
白俄羅斯 −1 0 −2 −3
摩尔多瓦 0 0 −2 −2
土耳其 −1 -1 0 −2
乌克兰 0 −1 0 −1
美国 0 −1 0 −1
亞美尼亞 0 0 −1 −1
烏茲別克 0 0 −1 −1
澳大利亚 +1 −1 0 0
新西兰 +1 −1 0 0
中華台北 +1 −1 0 0
突尼西亞 +1 −1 0 0
埃塞俄比亚 0 +1 −1 0
芬兰 0 +1 -1 0
特立尼达和多巴哥 0 +1 −1 0
伊朗 +1 +1 −1 +1
西班牙 +1 0 0 +1
中國 0 +2 −1 +1
印尼 0 +1 0 +1
喀麥隆 0 0 +1 +1
古巴 0 0 +1 +1
法国 0 0 +1 +1
匈牙利 0 0 +1 +1
爱尔兰 0 0 +1 +1
肯尼亚 0 0 +1 +1
泰国 0 0 +1 +1
埃及 0 +1 +1 +2
韩国 0 0 +2 +2
捷克 0 0 +1 +1

List of possible changes in medal standings[编辑]

2016 wave of retesting[编辑]

On 29 August 2016, a report indicated that a retested sample for Besik Kudukhov of Russia, the silver medalist in the men's 60 kg freestyle wrestling event, had returned a positive result (later disclosed as dehydrochlormethyltestosterone).[54] Kudakhov died in a car crash in December 2013. On 27 October 2016, the IOC dropped all disciplinary proceedings against Kudukhov, stating that such proceedings cannot be conducted against a deceased person. As a result, it said, Olympic results that would have been reviewed will remain uncorrected, which is the unavoidable consequence of the fact that the proceedings cannot move forward.[55]

List of possible changes in medal standings
Ruling date Sport/Event NOC 1 2 3 Total Comment
17 August 2015 Athletics
Women's 1500 metres
巴林 +1 −1 0 When reallocating medals, the IOC has previously elected not to advance athletes with a history of doping violations. Therefore, it is possible that runners from the U.S. and Slovakia in the original sixth and seventh positions could be awarded medals.
美国 +1 +1
斯洛伐克 +1 +1
24 March 2016 Athletics
Women's 20 kilometres walk
中國 +1 −1 +1 +1
20 August 2016 Athletics
Women's shot put
中國 +1 −1 +1 +1
14 September 2016 Weightlifting
Men's 94 kg
韩国 +1 −1 0 Intigam Zairov of Azerbaijan, initially finished fifth, and moved to second place after disqualification of Ilya Ilyin, Aleksandr Ivanov and Anatolie Cîrîcu, expected to be disqualified.
波兰 +1 +1
11 October 2016 Athletics
Women's hammer throw
波兰 +1 −1 0
德国 +1 −1 0
中國 +1 +1
1 February 2017 Athletics
4 × 400 metres relay
牙买加 +1 −1 0
乌克兰 +1 +1
5 April 2017 Weightlifting
Women's 63 kg
加拿大 +1 -1 0 On 5 April 2016, it was announced Svetlana Tsarukayeva from Russia was disqualified due to doping.
保加利亞 +1 +1
墨西哥 +1 +1

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ Crouse, Karen. Kenyan Reclaims 5,000-Meter Title From Countrywoman and Rival. The New York Times. 10 August 2012 [10 August 2012]. 
  2. ^ Kenya's Rudisha Storms to Gold in 800 meters. RIA Novosti. 9 August 2012 [9 August 2012]. 
  3. ^ Second place medal is a first for Cyprus. Boston Globe (The New York Times Company). 7 August 2012 [18 July 2014]. 
  4. ^ Anthony Obame wins silver. ESPN (The Walt Disney Company). 11 August 2012 [17 July 2014]. 
  5. ^ Grenada's Kirani James wins Olympic 400m gold. BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation). 6 August 2012 [9 August 2012]. 
  6. ^ Chen wins Olympic 20km walk, history for Guatemala. Eurosport Asia. 4 August 2012 [4 August 2012]. 
  7. ^ Olympics handball: Norway beat Montenegro to women's gold. BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation). 11 August 2012 [11 August 2012]. 
  8. ^ Olympics taekwondo: Serb Milica Mandic wins country's first gold. BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation). 11 August 2012 [14 August 2012]. 
  9. ^ Medal count – Olympic medal standings. BBC. [24 February 2014]. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 IOC SANCTIONS TWO ATHLETES FOR FAILING ANTI-DOPING TEST AT LONDON 2012. International Olympic Committee. 18 Oct 2016 [2016-10-18]. 
  11. ^ Ten weightlifters, including great Ilya Ilyin, return positive tests from London 2012. Sky Sports. 15 June 2016. 
  12. ^ IOC withdraws gold medal from shot put athlete Nadzeya Ostapchuk. IOC. [13 August 2012]. 
  13. ^ IOC Executive Board decision regarding Mr Soslan Tigiev (PDF). IOC. 6 November 2012 [7 November 2012]. 
  14. ^ IOC strips Uzbek wrestler of London bronze. IOC. 7 November 2012 [7 November 2012]. 
  15. ^ RusAthletics./Disqualification/(30.04.2013)
  16. ^ Olympian Darya Pishchalnikova suspended over failed drug test. BBC. 8 December 2012. 
  17. ^ Russian stripped of Olympic medal in discus for doping. CBCsports. 1 May 2013. 
  18. ^ Discus throw women results – Athletics – London 2012
  19. ^ Chinese discus thrower Li upgraded to 2012 Olympic silver
  20. ^ Tyson Gay gets one-year ban for failed drugs test
  21. ^ US stripped of London 2012 Olympic relay medals
  22. ^ USA men's 4 x 100m relay team disqualified from the 2012 London Olympic Games
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ Settlement Agreement between IAAF, TAF and Ms Asli Cakir-Alptekin
  25. ^ 25.0 25.1 Turkey's Asli Cakir Alptekin stripped of Olympic 1500m title for doping
  26. ^ 1500m women results – Athletics – London 2012 Olympics
  27. ^ The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) Upholds Six Appeals Filed by the IAAF Against Russian Athlete.
  28. ^ 50km walk men results – Athletics – London 2012 Olympics
  29. ^ Tallent Finally Receives Olympic Gold
  30. ^ The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) Upholds Six Appeals Filed by the IAAF Against Russian Athlete
  31. ^ 20km walk women results – Athletics – London 2012 Olympics
  32. ^ Russian set to be stripped of London 2012 Olympic title after doping ban. Insidethegames.biz. 30 January 2015. 
  33. ^ 33.0 33.1 3000m steeplechase women results – Athletics – London 2012. International Olympic Committee. 
  34. ^ Ghribi receives Olympic and world gold medals. Daily Mail. [13 July 2016]. 
  35. ^ 3000 METRES STEEPLECHASE WOMEN. IAAF. [13 July 2016]. 
  36. ^ Tunisias Ghribi receives Olympic and world gold medals
  37. ^ IOC sanctions Ukrainian weightlifter Yulia Kalina for failing anti-doping test at London 2012
  38. ^ 38.0 38.1 Results by Events. IWF. July 2016. 
  39. ^ IOC sanctions four athletes for failing anti-doping tests
  40. ^ IOC strips Ukrainian athlete of 2012 javelin silver. Reuters. 9 August 2016. 
  41. ^ http://www.kaleva.fi/urheilu/antti-ruuskanen-saa-olympiahopeansa-lahden-mm-kisojen-yhteydessa/752403/
  42. ^ http://sport.idnes.cz/atletika-vitezslav-vesely-vracena-medaile-bronz-z-londyna-zlata-tretra-2017-156-/atletika.aspx?c=A170628_141012_atletika_mne
  43. ^ IOC sanctions Evgeniia Kolodko for failing anti-doping test at London 2012
  44. ^ https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-tatyana-lysenko-for-failing-anti-doping-test-at-london-2012
  45. ^ IOC SANCTIONS EIGHT ATHLETES FOR FAILING ANTI-DOPING TEST AT LONDON 2012. International Olympic Committee. 27 Oct 2016 [2016-10-27]. 
  46. ^ IOC sanctions 12 athletes for failing anti-doping test at London 2012. International Olympic Committee. 21 Nov 2016 [2016-11-21]. 
  47. ^ IOC sanctions seven athletes for failing anti-doping tests at Beijing 2008 and London 2012. International Olympic Committee. 25 Nov 2016 [2016-11-25]. 
  48. ^ The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) issues decisions in the cases of Tatyana Chernova, Ekaterina Sharmina and Kristina Ugarova
  49. ^ https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-three-athletes-for-failing-anti-doping-test-at-london-2012
  50. ^ http://www.bbc.com/sport/athletics/38931007
  51. ^ http://www.espn.com/olympics/trackandfield/story/_/id/19029333/turkish-runner-elvan-abeylegesse-lose-two-olympic-medals-doping
  52. ^ SI Wire. World champion Abeba Aregawi tests positive for banned substance. 29 February 2016 [29 February 2016]. 
  53. ^ https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-three-athletes-for-failing-anti-doping-test-at-beijing-2008-and-london-2012
  54. ^ Wrestling Legends Besik Kudukhov & Artur Taymazov Stripped Of Olympic Medals. FloWrestling.Org. [30 August 2016]. 
  55. ^ IOC DISCIPLINARY COMMISSION DECISION REGARDING BESIK KUDUKHOV (PDF). International Olympic Committee. 27 Oct 2016 [2016-10-27]. 

外部链接[编辑]