在多数现代欧洲语言中，分词有现在分词（英语present participle）和过去分词（英语past participle）两种。在德语中，这两种分词更习惯叫作第一分词（德语Partizip I）和第二分词（德语Partizip II）。
- Participles from the American Heritage Book of English Usage (1996).
participle is divide into present participle and past participle. in present participle we use: has/have + present tense word. but the past participle is use: had + past tense word. like:he has never playing volleyball before.(present participle)
he had played volleyball before.(past participle)