白兀鷲

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白兀鷲
成年的 N. p. ginginianus 亞種
成年的 N. p. ginginianus 亞種
保护状况
科學分類
界: 動物界 Animalia
門: 脊索動物門 Chordata
綱: 鳥綱 Aves
目: 隼形目 Falconiformes;或
鷹形目 Accipitriformes

科: 鷹科 Accipitridae
亞科: 禿鷲亞科 Aegypiinae
屬: 白兀鷲屬 Neophron
Savigny, 1809
種: 白兀鷲 N. percnopterus
二名法
Neophron percnopterus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
白兀鷲的分佈地
白兀鷲的分佈地

白兀鷲學名Neophron percnopterus),又名埃及禿鷲,是一種稀少的禿鷲。它們分佈在歐洲西南部及非洲北部至南亞。它們的翼底呈黑白色,尾巴呈楔狀。它們有時會用石頭敲破鳥蛋,是小數懂得使用工具的鳥類之一。在溫帶繁殖的群落會向南遷徙過冬,而在熱帶的多是留鳥。它們的數量於20世紀有所下降,而在島嶼中的群落則特別瀕危

特徵[编辑]

成年指名亞種。

白兀鷲的羽毛是白色的,飛羽黑色。它們的身體有時有些泥色是與其習性有關。喙幼長,上頷端有鈎。鼻孔很長。頸部羽毛很長,雙翼很尖,當中以第三主羽最長。尾巴呈楔狀。爪子直而且長,第三及第四趾有小蹼。指名亞種的喙是黑色的,而印度亞種N. p. ginginianus的則較為淡色或黃色,但這種變化仍需更多證據支持。[2] 面部皮膚是黃色的。[3] 雛鳥是黑色或深褐色的,有黑白色的斑。[3] 成年的白兀鷲全長85厘米,翼展1.7米。它們重約2公斤,但N. p. majorensis則平均重2.4公斤。[4]

分類[编辑]

白兀鷲屬只有白兀鷲一個物種。此屬相信是最古老的禿鷲分支之一,現存的最近親是胡兀鷲[5][6] 有些學者更建議將它們分類到新的胡兀鷲亞科之中。[7] 現時廣泛接受的有三個白兀鷲的亞種,但它們之間卻有很多混種[8]俾路支地區喜瑪拉雅山西北部的N. p. rubripersonatus並未獲得確認。[2][9]

  • N. p. percnopterus:指名亞種,其分佈最廣,包括南歐北非中東中亞印度次大陸。它們在溫帶地區繁殖,並會向南過冬。
  • N. p. ginginianus:體型最細小的亞種,喙呈淡色。它們分佈在印度次大陸的大部份地區。其名是衍生自印度南部的京吉(Gingee)。[10]
  • N. p. majorensis:體型最大的亞種。它們分佈在加那利群島,群落數量最少及最受限制。於2002年才確立為一個亞種,它們的基因較為接近N. p. percnopterus,而疏於N. p. ginginianus。它們不是候鳥。其名字是衍生自富埃特文圖拉島的古代名字。[11][12]

白兀鷲屬的屬名是取自希臘神話涅俄佛隆(Neophron)。涅俄佛隆是Timandra的兒子,而Timandra則是Aegypius的情婦。涅俄佛隆將Aegypius的母親幻化成Timandra,欺騙他與其母同寢。他母親醒來後慾奪走他的眼睛,但宙斯卻將涅俄佛斯及Aegypius變成禿鷲[13]種小名則是指其黑色的雙翼。[14]

分佈[编辑]

白兀鷲廣泛分佈在南歐北非西亞南亞。它們主要棲息在乾旱平原。它們有時也會流浪到斯里蘭卡[3]歐洲北部及南非[15] 歐洲群落會向南遷徙3500-5500公里到達非洲,有時單日的旅程長達500公里。在法國曾有一隻白兀鷲出生第三天就已經向南遷徙。[16][17]義大利的群落會橫跨馬雷蒂莫(Marettimo)及潘泰萊里亞,經西西里島到達突尼西亞[18]

行為及生態[编辑]

正在飛行的白兀鷲。

白兀鷲經常會隨熱流上升。它們吃多種食物,包括哺乳動物糞便(尤其是人類[19])、昆蟲、屍體、植物及細小的獵物。[20] 研究顯示它們吃哺乳動物的糞便可以幫助它們攝取類胡蘿蔔素色素,令其面部皮膚呈鮮黃及橙色。[21] 它們一般較為寂靜,但若受到騷擾則會發出高音的叫聲。[2]

白兀鷲是群居的[22],鳥巢會不斷再用。它們很多時都是單獨或成對的行動。它們是一夫一妻制的,夫妻的關係可以維持多於一個繁殖季節。成年雄鷲在雌鷲生蛋前後很多時都會留在其身邊。[23] 它們會在峭壁、建築物及樹上築巢。[2]N. p. ginginianusN. p. majorensis也會在地上築巢。[24][25][26]印度群落的繁殖季節是於2月至4月。雙親都會孵蛋,孵化期為42天。[3] 3-5天後就會孵化第二隻雛鷲,但時間越長,其生存率就越低。[27] 在鳥巢緊迫的地方,雛鷲有時會走到其他鳥巢尋找食物。[28]西班牙群落的幼鷲會在90-110天大時換羽及離開鳥巢。[29] 幼鷲離開鳥巢後會到遠達500公里以外的地方。[30][31] 到了4-5歲大時,它們就會擁有成鳥的羽毛。飼養的白兀鷲壽命可達37歲。[32]

成年白兀鷲並沒有很多天敵,但很多時卻死於電纜、污染及中毒。幼鷲會被金雕雕鴞赤狐掠食。從峭壁上掉下的白兀鷲也會被胡狼所撿走。[33]

指名亞種是懂得使用工具的。它們會用喙將大卵石擲向大蛋,將其敲碎。[34] 不過在N. p. ginginianus中卻看不見這種行為。[2] 研究發現這種行為並非學習得來的,而是天生的。[35]保加利亞群落也有使用樹枝來捲起羊毛,用以製作鳥巢。[36]

保育狀況[编辑]

一只被人工飼養的白兀鷲,攝於西班牙

白兀鷲在大部份分佈地中都正經歷嚴重的衰落。在歐洲中東大部份地區,其數量只有20年前的一半;在印度非洲西南部,它們的數量也大幅減少。於1967年至1970年,在德里附近地區就估計只有12000-15000隻白兀鷲,平均密度為每10平方公里約有5對。[37][38] 引起衰落的原因不明,但卻與使用非甾體抗炎藥雙氯芬酸鈉有關。[39]南歐,它們的衰落也與鉛中毒、使用殺蟲劑觸電有關。[4][40]西班牙的研究發現吸收抗生素會抑制它們的免疫系統,造成較易的感染。[41]

加那利群島群落與歐洲及非洲的群落分隔了一段頗長時間,而且大幅下降。它們以往廣佈在戈梅拉島特內里費島大加那利島富埃特文圖拉島蘭薩羅特島,但現已只限於富埃特文圖拉島、蘭薩羅特島和兩個最東的島嶼。它們的數量於2000年估計約有130隻,共25-30繁殖對。[4][42] 這些島嶼群落特別容易受到感染。[43] 在吃腐肉的時候,它們積聚了大量的,令其骨頭礦物化。[44] 現時有措施提供安全及沒有污染的食物,不過缺點是會吸引其他掠食性動物,增加對雛鷲的危害。[45]

參考[编辑]

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外部連結[编辑]