飛毛腿飛彈

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飛毛腿飛彈
Scud-launcher-scotland1.jpg
飛毛腿飛彈發射車
概觀
類型 地對地飛彈
首次試射 1954
服役 1957(Scud-A)
1965(Scud-B)
1970(Scud-C)
1989(Scud-D)
設計生產  蘇聯
技術數據
長度 11.25米
直徑 88厘米
負載重量 4,400kg(Scud-A)
5,900kg(Scud-B)
6,400kg(Scud-C)
6,500kg(Scud-D)
發動機 UDMH、IRFNA液體火箭引擎
最大速度 5馬赫
有效射程 150 km(Scud-A)
300Km(Scud-B)
600Km(Scud-C)
700Km(Scud-D)
制导方式 慣性導引
慣性導引+圖像照片比對導引(Scud-D)
彈頭 985公斤各種彈頭
600公斤各種彈頭(Scud-C)
引信 碰炸引信近炸引信
發射平台 車輛
波兰 导弹 wz. 8/K-14 (Scud-B)
履帶車備射狀態

飞毛腿导弹(Scud)是一个已经被大众接受了的词汇,指苏联冷战时期开发并被广泛出口的一系列的战术弹道导弹。这个名称是从北約代號SS-1飞毛腿得来的,它包括了苏联的从R-11R-17R-300厄尔布鲁士的一系列导弹。飞毛腿这个名字还被媒体指别的国家根据苏联原型广泛发展的许多种导弹。如在美国有时指飞毛腿SCUD被泛指为任何国家的不是从西方原型发展出来的弹道导弹

研制[编辑]

9K72导弹系统"Elbrus" (Scud B)的MAZ-543 (9P117)发射车与8K14火箭

第一次「飞毛腿(Scud)」这个词是北约将R-11弹道导弹称为飞毛腿-A型(SS-1b)。更早的R-1导弹英语R-1 (missile)北约称为SS-1 Scunner是一个非常不一样的设计,几乎是德国V2的直接翻版。R-11同样采用了V-2的技术,但它是一个全新的设计,更小,与V-2和R-1的形状不一样。R-11是由Korolyev OKB[1]Makeyev OKB 设计并在1957年服役的。R-11最有革命性的创新是A.M. Isaev设计的引擎,比V-2的多室设计(multi-chamber design)远为简单,并且用防震荡折流板(anti-oscillation baffle)防止间歇燃烧。这是苏联太空火箭所使用的更大的引擎的设计先驱。

后来发展的变种有1961年的R-300厄尔布鲁士/飞毛腿-B( SS-1c)和1965年的飞毛腿-C(SS-1d ),都可以携带5-80千吨的常规高爆的核武器化学武器(加厚的VX)弹头。1980年代发展的飞毛腿-D(SS-1e)可以携带一个常规高爆弹头,一个空气作为氧化剂(参见fuel-air explosive)的弹头,40个机场路道破坏弹(参见sub-munitions)或者100个5千克的人员杀伤性小炸弹。

所有型号都是11.25米长(除了飞毛腿Scud-A,短了一米)直径0.88米。推动引擎是用煤油和硝酸的单引擎(飞毛腿-A)或者用UDMHRFNA(Russian SG-02 Tonka 250)的引擎(别的型号)。

最大速度5马赫。

型号[编辑]

苏联[编辑]

R-11[编辑]

1951年,由Sergey Korolev领导的OKB-1的工程师Victor Makeev开始设计R-11导弹系统。1953年4月18日首飞,使用伊萨耶夫设计的煤油+硝酸作为燃料的引擎。1953年12月13日,位于ZlatoustSKB-385工厂开始生产该型号。1955年6月,Makeev成为SKB-385的总设计师。1955年7月,R-11正式入役。[2]1958年4月1日,携带核弹头的R-11M入役。发射系统型号为8K11。[3]

R-11M最大射程270 km,如果携带50kt核弹头则最大射程为150 km.[4] [5]

潜射型号R-11FM (SS-N-1 Scud-A)于1955年2月在试飞,1955年9月在Project 611 (祖鲁级)潜艇上试射。型号研制于1955年8月转移给Makeev的SKB-385。[2]1959年实战部署在611级及Project 629 (高尔夫级)弹道导弹常规潜艇. 服役期间,发射77次,其中59次成功。[6]


R-17[编辑]

8K14导弹后视图

R-11的后继型号是R-17 (SS-1C 飞毛腿-B), 并在1970年代改称R-300,产量估计7000套。服役于32个国家,还有4个国家仿制。[5]1961年首飞,1964年入役。[1]

R-17可携带常规、核、化学或集束弹头。[5]最初使用履带式底盘作为2P19transporter erector launcher (TEL), 但不久改为Titan Central Design Bureau的轮式底盘,1967年入役。[7] MAZ-543车辆作为9P117 Uragan.使用液压动力把导弹起竖,这需要4分钟才能发射。[5]

飞毛腿-C[编辑]

Makeyev OKB研制的R-17增程型,西方称为飞毛腿-C,1965年在Kapustin Yar卡普斯京亚尔靶场首飞。, 射程500–600 km,但战斗荷载降低了。当时苏联有更好的替代装备,如TR-1 Temp (SS-12 Scaleboard),因此飞毛腿-C并没有被苏军列装。[8]

飞毛腿-D[编辑]

R-17 VTO增强了R-17的精度。The Central Scientific Research Institute for Automation and Hydraulics (TsNIAAG)1968年开始这一项目。1979年9月首飞。1989年入役,型号为9K720 Aerofon。[9] 此时,苏军有了更为先进的OTR-21 Tochka (SS-21) 与R-400 Oka (SS-23), 飞毛腿-D针对出口市场。[9]

技术性能[编辑]

NATO codename 飞毛腿-A 飞毛腿-B 飞毛腿-C 飞毛腿-D
美国国防情报局 SS-1b SS-1c SS-1d SS-1e
研制型号 R-11 R-17/R-300 R-17 VTO
入役时间 1957 1964 1965 1989
弹长 10.7 m 11.25 m 11.25 m 12.29 m
弹径 0.88 m 0.88 m 0.88 m 0.88 m
发射重量 4,400 kg 5,900 kg 6,400 kg 6,500 kg
射程 180 km 300 km 550 km 1000 km
载重 950 kg 985 kg 600 kg 985 kg
精度 (CEP) 3000 m 450 m 700 m 50 m

北朝鲜[编辑]

Hwasong-5[编辑]

North Korea obtained its first Scud-Bs from Egypt in 1979 or 1980. These missiles were reverse engineered, and reproduced using North Korean infrastructure, including the 125 factory at Pyongyang, a research and development institute at Sanum-dong and the Musudan-ri Launch Facility.[10] The first prototypes were completed in 1984, and designated Hwasong-5. They were exact replicas of the R-17Es obtained from Egypt. The first test flights occurred in April 1984, but the first version saw only limited production, and no operational deployment, as its purpose was only to validate the production process.

Production of the definitive version began at a slow rate in 1985. The type incorporated several minor improvements over the original Soviet design. The range was increased by 10 to 15 percent and it could carry High Explosive (HE) or cluster chemical warheads. Throughout the production cycle, until it was phased out in favour of the Hwasong-6 in 1989, the DPRK manufacturers are thought to have carried out small enhancements, in particular to the guidance system.[10]

In 1985, Iran acquired 90 to 100 Hwasong-5 missiles from North Korea. A production line was also established in Iran, where the Hwasong-5 was produced as the Shahab-1.[10]

Hwasong-6[编辑]

The Hwasong-6 was first test-flown in June 1990, and entered full-scale production the same year, or in 1991, until it was superseded by the Rodong-1. It features an improved guidance system, a range of 500 km, but saw its payload reduced to 770 kg, though the dimensions are identical to the original Scud. Due to difficulties in procuring MAZ-543 TELs, the North Koreans had to produce a local copy. By 1999, North Korea was estimated to have produced 600 to 1,000 Hwasong-6 missiles, of which 25 served for testing, 300 to 500 were exported, and 300 to 600 are used by the Korean People's Army.[11]

The Hwasong-6 was exported to Iran where it is known as the Shahab-2, and to Syria, where it is manufactured under license with Chinese assistance.[11] Also, according to SIPRI, 150 Scud-C were exported to Syria in 1991-96, 5 to Libya in 1999, 45 to Yemen in 2001-02.[12]

劳动-1[编辑]

The Rodong (also NoDong, "Scud-D"), was the first North Korean missile to feature important modifications from the Scud design. Development began in 1988, and the first missile was launched in 1990, but it apparently exploded on its launch pad. A second test was carried out in May 1993 successfully.[11]

The main characteristics of the Rodong are a range of 1000 km and a CEP estimated at 2,000-4,000 m, giving the North Koreans the ability to strike Japan.[13] The missile is substantially larger than the Hwasong series, and its Isayev 9D21 engine was upgraded with help from Makeyev OKB. Some assistance came also from China and Ukraine while a new TEL was designed using an Italian Iveco truck chassis and an Austrian crane. The rapidity with which the Rodong was designed and exported after just two tests came as a surprise for many Western observers, and led to some speculation that it was in fact based on a cancelled Soviet project from the Cold War period, but this has not been proven.[14]

Iran is known to have financed much of the Rodong program, and in return is allowed to produce the missile, as the Shahab-3. While the first prototypes may have been acquired as early as 1992, production began only in 2001, with assistance from Russia.[來源請求] The Rodong has also been exported to Egypt and Libya.

伊拉克[编辑]

"飞毛腿"这个名字也被用来指同一种导弹经伊拉克修改的版本。修改后射程增加,当许多导弹向以色列(40)和沙特阿拉伯(46)发射时,这一点尤为突出。美国制造的爱国者导弹系统据说成功地拦截了导弹,但是许多评论家声称爱国者导弹的作用被严重夸张了,实际上有85%的失败率。这些导弹是伊拉克最有危险的进攻性武器之一,尤其是对于以色列而言。携带生化弹头的可能性也被广泛关注。

最终,飞毛腿导弹直接造成了一名以色列人,以及28名美国士兵(导弹击中了位于沙特阿拉伯首都利雅得的一座宾夕法尼亚州国民警卫队兵营)的死亡。针对飞毛腿导弹的搜索耗用了自愿联盟空军大约三分之一的力量。借助于“运输-起竖-发射”(TEL)三用车,这些导弹可以被非常机动地运输,并且难以被捕捉;美国和英国的特种部队成员经常承担在敌军的防线后方搜索并破坏这些导弹的任务。对于上述集团而言,消除来自飞毛腿导弹的威胁是有着特殊重要性的。正如以色列曾经扬言,如果侵袭继续,便将加入对伊拉克的战争,但这会分裂反以阿拉伯国家组成的攻打伊拉克的联盟,也会大大加重美国和英国的战争代价。

伊拉克发展了四种改型:飞毛腿导弹(Scud)、远程飞毛腿导弹(longer-range Scud或Scud LR)、侯赛因(Al Hussein)和阿巴斯(Al Abbas)。除了那些几乎未经改造的武器之外,这些导弹并不成功,因为它们往往在飞行过程中崩解,并且只能搭载小弹头。

伊朗[编辑]

巴基斯坦[编辑]

其他词义[编辑]

在Scud一词被用于导弹之前,它有其他一些意义,如下:

  • 动词:如风一般地快速奔跑。例,一艘帆船
  • 移过性的烟云、阵雨或浪花。

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Template:Cite web Korolev
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Wade, Mark. R-11. Encyclopedia Astronautica. [2008-02-17]. 
  3. ^ Zaloga, p.7
  4. ^ Zaloga, p.4
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 SS-1 `Scud' (R-11/8K11, R-11FM (SS-N-1B) and R-17/8K14). Jane's Information Group. 26 April 2001 [2008-02-12]. (原始内容存档于2007-12-15). 
  6. ^ R-11FM / SS-1b Scud. Federation of American Scientists. July 13, 2000 [2008-02-19]. 
  7. ^ Zaloga, pp.14-15
  8. ^ Zaloga, p.17
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 Zaloga, p.19
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Bermudez, Joseph S. A History of Ballistic Missile Development in the DPRK: First Ballistic Missiles, 1979–1989. James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. 1999 [2008-02-14]. [失效連結]
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 Bermudez, Joseph S. A History of Ballistic Missile Development in the DPRK: Longer Range Designs, 1989-Present. James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. 1999 [2008-02-14]. [失效連結]
  12. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun (in Japanese) 2009-03-27, ver.13, page11
  13. ^ CNS Special Report on North Korean Ballistic Missile Capabilities. James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. March 22, 2006 [2008-02-15]. [失效連結]
  14. ^ Nodong: Overview and Technical Assessment. Nuclear Threat Initiative. May 2003 [2008-02-15]. 
  15. ^ SS-1C 'Scud B'. MissileThreat.com. [2008-02-12]. 
  16. ^ Description of the attack at the 600nd brigade's site (希伯来文)
  17. ^ "U.S. to Send 2 Missile Units to Turkey to Deter Syrians"
  18. ^ 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 Perrimond, Guy. 1944–2001: The threat of theatre ballistic missiles (PDF). TTU Online. 2002 [2008-02-13]. (原始内容存档于2007-10-16). 
  19. ^ Iraq says Iran fires Scuds
  20. ^ Iraq Accuses Iran of Scud Missile Attack
  21. ^ Iran telegraphs superiority with missile barrage on Iraq
  22. ^ Yousaf & Adkin, p. 230
  23. ^ Zaloga, p. 39
  24. ^ Lewis, George, Fetter, Steve and Gronlund, Lisbeth (1993). Casualties and damage from Scud attacks in the 1991 Gulf War. Defense and Arms Control Studies Program, Center for International Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, p. 13
  25. ^ Adamec, Ludwig (2011). Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Scarecrow Press, p. 226. ISBN 0810878151
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  27. ^ 28.0 28.1 Zaloga, p.39
  28. ^ Iraq: The Great Scud Hunt. Time. 2002-12-23. 
  29. ^ Rostker, Bernard. Information Paper: Iraq's Scud Ballistic Missiles. Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control from 2000–2006. 2000 [21 May 2009]. 
  30. ^ Schmitt, Eric. After the war; Army Is Blaming Patriot's Computer For Failure to Stop the Dhahran Scud. The New York Times. May 20, 1991 [2008-02-11]. 
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  50. ^ http://old.er.ru/text.shtml?19/7240,110989

外部链接[编辑]

参见[编辑]