第一次「飞毛腿（Scud）」这个词是北约将R-11弹道导弹称为飞毛腿-A型（SS-1b）。更早的R-1导弹被北约称为SS-1 Scunner是一个非常不一样的设计，几乎是德国V2火箭的直接翻版。R-11同样采用了V-2的技术，但它是一个全新的设计，更小，与V-2和R-1的形状不一样。R-11是由Korolyev OKBMakeyev OKB 设计并在1957年服役的。R-11最有革命性的创新是A.M. Isaev设计的引擎，比V-2的多室设计（multi-chamber design）远为简单，并且用防震荡折流板（anti-oscillation baffle）防止间歇燃烧。这是苏联太空火箭所使用的更大的引擎的设计先驱。
后来发展的变种有1961年的R-300厄尔布鲁士/飞毛腿-B（ SS-1c）和1965年的飞毛腿-C（SS-1d ），都可以携带5-80千吨的常规高爆的核武器或化学武器（加厚的VX）弹头。1980年代发展的飞毛腿-D（SS-1e）可以携带一个常规高爆弹头，一个空气作为氧化剂（参见fuel-air explosive）的弹头，40个机场路道破坏弹（参见sub-munitions）或者100个5千克的人员杀伤性小炸弹。
1951年，由Sergey Korolev领导的OKB-1的工程师Victor Makeev开始设计R-11导弹系统。1953年4月18日首飞，使用伊萨耶夫设计的煤油+硝酸作为燃料的引擎。1953年12月13日，位于Zlatoust的SKB-385工厂开始生产该型号。1955年6月，Makeev成为SKB-385的总设计师。1955年7月，R-11正式入役。1958年4月1日，携带核弹头的R-11M入役。发射系统型号为8K11。
R-17 VTO增强了R-17的精度。The Central Scientific Research Institute for Automation and Hydraulics (TsNIAAG)1968年开始这一项目。1979年9月首飞。1989年入役，型号为9K720 Aerofon。 此时，苏军有了更为先进的OTR-21 Tochka (SS-21) 与R-400 Oka (SS-23), 飞毛腿-D针对出口市场。
|弹长||10.7 m||11.25 m||11.25 m||12.29 m|
|弹径||0.88 m||0.88 m||0.88 m||0.88 m|
|发射重量||4,400 kg||5,900 kg||6,400 kg||6,500 kg|
|射程||180 km||300 km||550 km||1000 km|
|载重||950 kg||985 kg||600 kg||985 kg|
|精度 (CEP)||3000 m||450 m||700 m||50 m|
North Korea obtained its first Scud-Bs from Egypt in 1979 or 1980. These missiles were reverse engineered, and reproduced using North Korean infrastructure, including the 125 factory at Pyongyang, a research and development institute at Sanum-dong and the Musudan-ri Launch Facility. The first prototypes were completed in 1984, and designated Hwasong-5. They were exact replicas of the R-17Es obtained from Egypt. The first test flights occurred in April 1984, but the first version saw only limited production, and no operational deployment, as its purpose was only to validate the production process.
Production of the definitive version began at a slow rate in 1985. The type incorporated several minor improvements over the original Soviet design. The range was increased by 10 to 15 percent and it could carry High Explosive (HE) or cluster chemical warheads. Throughout the production cycle, until it was phased out in favour of the Hwasong-6 in 1989, the DPRK manufacturers are thought to have carried out small enhancements, in particular to the guidance system.
The Hwasong-6 was first test-flown in June 1990, and entered full-scale production the same year, or in 1991, until it was superseded by the Rodong-1. It features an improved guidance system, a range of 500 km, but saw its payload reduced to 770 kg, though the dimensions are identical to the original Scud. Due to difficulties in procuring MAZ-543 TELs, the North Koreans had to produce a local copy. By 1999, North Korea was estimated to have produced 600 to 1,000 Hwasong-6 missiles, of which 25 served for testing, 300 to 500 were exported, and 300 to 600 are used by the Korean People's Army.
The Hwasong-6 was exported to Iran where it is known as the Shahab-2, and to Syria, where it is manufactured under license with Chinese assistance. Also, according to SIPRI, 150 Scud-C were exported to Syria in 1991-96, 5 to Libya in 1999, 45 to Yemen in 2001-02.
The Rodong (also NoDong, "Scud-D"), was the first North Korean missile to feature important modifications from the Scud design. Development began in 1988, and the first missile was launched in 1990, but it apparently exploded on its launch pad. A second test was carried out in May 1993 successfully.
The main characteristics of the Rodong are a range of 1000 km and a CEP estimated at 2,000-4,000 m, giving the North Koreans the ability to strike Japan. The missile is substantially larger than the Hwasong series, and its Isayev 9D21 engine was upgraded with help from Makeyev OKB. Some assistance came also from China and Ukraine while a new TEL was designed using an Italian Iveco truck chassis and an Austrian crane. The rapidity with which the Rodong was designed and exported after just two tests came as a surprise for many Western observers, and led to some speculation that it was in fact based on a cancelled Soviet project from the Cold War period, but this has not been proven.
Iran is known to have financed much of the Rodong program, and in return is allowed to produce the missile, as the Shahab-3. While the first prototypes may have been acquired as early as 1992, production began only in 2001, with assistance from Russia.[來源請求] The Rodong has also been exported to Egypt and Libya.
The Scud missile (including derivatives) is one of the few ballistic missiles to be used in actual warfare, second only to the V-2 in terms of combat launches (the SS-21, MGM-140 ATACMS, Fateh-110 and 9K720 Iskander being the only other ballistic missiles fired in action). The first recorded combat use of the Scud was at the end of the Yom Kippur War in 1973, when three missiles were fired by Egypt against the Israeli bridgehead on the western bank of the Suez canal. Seven Israeli soldiers were killed. Libya responded to U.S. airstrikes in 1986 by firing two Scud missiles at a U.S. Coast Guard navigation station on the nearby Italian island of Lampedusa, which missed their target. Scud missiles were used in several regional conflicts that included use by Soviet and Afghan Communist forces in Afghanistan, and Iranians and Iraqis against one another in the so-called "War of the cities" during the Iran–Iraq War. Scuds were used by Iraq during the Gulf War against Israel and coalition targets in Saudi Arabia.
More than a dozen Scuds were fired from Afghanistan at targets in Pakistan in 1988. There was also a small number of Scud missiles used in the 1994 civil war in Yemen, as well as by Russian forces in Chechnya in 1996 and onwards. The missiles saw some minor use by forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi in the Libyan civil war. They have reportedly been used recently in the ongoing Syrian civil war by forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad.
Iraq was the first to use ballistic missiles during the Iran–Iraq War, firing limited numbers of Frog-7 rockets at the towns of Dezful and Ahvaz. On 27 October 1982, Iraq launched its first Scud-Bs at Dezful killing 21 civilians and wounding 100. Scud strikes continued during the following years, intensifying sharply in 1985, with more than 100 missiles falling inside Iran.
Desperate to respond in kind, the Iranians searched for a source of ballistic weapons, finally meeting success in 1985, when they obtained a small number of Scud-Bs from Libya. These weapons were assigned to a special unit, the Khatam Al-Anbya force, attached to the Pasdaran. On March 12, the first Iranian Scuds fell in Baghdad and Kirkuk. The strikes infuriated Saddam Hussein, but the Iraqi response was limited by the range of their Scuds, that could not reach Tehran. After a request for TR-1 Temp (SS-12 Scaleboard) missiles was refused by the Soviets, Iraq turned to developing its own long-range version of the Scud missile, that became known as the Al Hussein. In the meantime, both sides quickly ran out of missiles, and had to contact their international partners for resupply. In 1986, Iraq ordered 300 Scud-Bs from the USSR, while Iran turned to North Korea for missile deliveries, and for assistance in developing an indigenous missile industry.
In 1988, the fighting along the border had reached a stalemate, and both belligerents began employing terror tactics, in order to break the deadlock. Lasting from 29 February to 20 April, this conflict became known as the war of the cities, and saw an intensive use of Scud missiles in what became known as the "Scud duel". The first rounds were fired by Iraq, when seven Al-Husseins landed in Tehran on February 29. In all, Iraq fired 189 missiles, mostly of the Al-Hussein type, of which 135 landed in Tehran, 23 in Qom, 22 in Isfahan, four in Tabriz, three in Shiraz and two in Karaj. During this episode, Iraq's missiles killed 2,000 Iranians, injured 6,000, and caused a quarter of Tehran's population of ten million to flee the city. The Iranian response included launching 75 to 77 Hwasong-5s, a North Korean Scud variant, at targets in Iraq, mostly in Baghdad.
Iraq asserts that Iran has fired dozens of Scud missiles at MKO targets in Iraq in 1999 and 2001. According to MKO spokesmen, in the 2001 assault, Iran fired more missiles at Iraq than it did during the entire Iran-Iraq war.
The most intensive - and less well-known - use of Scud missiles occurred during the civil war in Afghanistan between 1989 and 1992. As compensation for the withdrawal of Soviet troops in 1989, the USSR agreed to deliver sophisticated weapons to the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA), among which were large quantities of Scud-Bs, and possibly some Scud-Cs as well. The first 500 were transferred during the early months of 1989, and soon proved to be a critical strategic asset for the DRA. Every Scud battery was composed of three TELs, three reloading vehicles, a mobile meteorological unit, one tanker and several command and control trucks. During the mujahideen backed by an infantry brigade of the Pakistani Army attack against Jalalabad, between March and June 1989, three firing batteries manned by Afghan crews advised by Soviets fired approximately 438 missiles in defense of the embattled garrison. Soon all the heavily contested areas of Afghanistan, such as the Salang Pass and the city of Kandahar, were under attack by Scud missiles.
Due to its imprecision, the Scud was used as an area bombing weapon, and its effect was psychological as well as physical: the missiles would explode without warning, as they travelled faster than the sound they produced in-flight. At the time, reports indicated that Scud attacks had devastating consequences on the morale of the Afghan rebels, who eventually learned that by applying guerilla tactics, and keeping their forces dispersed and hidden, they could minimize casualties from Scud attacks. The Scud was also used as a punitive weapon, striking areas that were held by the resistance. In March 1991, shortly after the town of Khost was captured, it was hit by a Scud attack. On 20 April 1991, the marketplace of Asadabad was hit by two Scuds, that killed 300 and wounded 500 inhabitants. Though the exact toll is unknown, these attacks resulted in heavy civilian casualties. The explosions destroyed the headquarters of Islamic leader Jamil al-Rahman, and killed a number of his followers.
In all, between October 1988 and February 1992, with 1,700 to 2,000 Scud launches, Afghanistan saw the greatest concentration of ballistic weapons fired since World War II.[失效連結] After January 1992, the Soviet advisors were withdrawn, reducing the Afghan army's ability to use their ballistic missiles. On April 24, 1992, the mujahideen forces of Ahmad Shah Massoud captured the main Scud stockpile at Afshur. As the communist government collapsed, the few remaining Scuds and their TELs were divided among the rival factions fighting for power. However, the lack of trained personnel prevented a sustained use of such weapons, and, between April 1992 and 1996, only 44 Scuds were fired in Afghanistan. When the Taliban arrived in power in 1996, they captured a few of the remaining Scuds, but lack of maintenance had reduced the state of the missile force to such an extent that there were only five Scud firings, until 2001. Following the U.S. intervention in Afghanistan, the last four surviving Scud launchers were destroyed in 2005.
At the outbreak of the Persian Gulf War, Iraq had an effective, if limited, ballistic missile force. Besides the original Scud-B, several local variants had been developed. These included the Al-Hussein, developed during the Iran–Iraq War, the Al-Hijarah, a shortened Al-Hussein, and the Al-Abbas, an extended-range Scud fired from fixed launching sites, that was never used. The Soviet-built MAZ-543 vehicle was the prime launcher, along with a few locally designed TELs, the Al Nida and the Al Waleed.
Scuds were responsible for most of the coalition deaths outside Iraq and Kuwait. Of a total 88 Scud missiles, 46 were fired into Saudi Arabia and 42 into Israel. They killed one Israeli directly and one Saudi security guard by a hotel. Twenty-eight members of the Pennsylvania National Guard were killed when a Scud struck a United States Army barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
The United States Air Force organized air patrols over areas where Scud launchers were suspected to operate, namely western Iraq near the Jordanian border, where the Scuds were fired at Israel, and southern Iraq, where they were aimed at Saudi Arabia. A-10 strike aircraft flew over these zones during the day, and F-15Es fitted with LANTIRN pods and synthetic aperture radars patrolled at night. However, the infrared and radar signatures of the Iraqi TELSs were almost impossible to distinguish from ordinary trucks and from the surrounding electromagnetic clutter. While patrolling, strike aircraft managed to sight their targets on 42 occasions, but they were only able to acquire them long enough to release their ordnance three times. In addition, the Iraqi missile units dispersed their Scud TELs and hid them in culverts, wadis, or under highway bridges. They also practiced "shoot-and-scoot" tactics, withdrawing the launcher to a hidden location immediately after it had fired, while the launch sequence that usually took 90 minutes was reduced to half an hour. This enabled them to preserve their forces, despite optimistic claims by the coalition. A post-war Pentagon study concluded that relatively few launchers had been destroyed by coalition aircraft.
Ground-based special forces from the United Kingdom were covertly inserted into Iraq to locate and destroy Scud launchers, either by directing airstrikes or in some cases attacking them directly with MILAN man-portable missiles. An example was the 8-man SAS patrol designated Bravo Two Zero, led by "Andy McNab" (a pseudonym). This patrol resulted in the death or capture of all but one of its members, "Chris Ryan".
The mobility of Scud TELs allowed for a choice of firing position and increased the survivability of the weapon system to such an extent that, of the approximately 100 launchers claimed destroyed by coalition pilots and special forces in the Gulf War, not a single destruction could be confirmed afterwards. After the war, UNSCOM investigations showed that Iraq still had 12 MAZ-543 vehicles, as well as seven Al-Waleed and Al-Nidal launchers, and 62 complete Al-Hussein missiles.
A small number of Scuds were used by Russian forces in 1996 during the First Chechen War and in late 1999/early 2000 during the Second Chechen War. Although frequently reported by media as Scuds, the majority of the 60-100 SRBMs fired in the Chechen Wars were the OTR-21 Tochka (SS-21 Scarab-B).
In May 2011, early during the Libyan civil war, it was rumored that Scud-B's had been fired by Muammar Gaddafi's forces against anti-Gaddafi forces. The first confirmed use happened several months later, when on 15 August 2011, as anti-Gaddafi forces encircled the Gaddafi-controlled capital of Tripoli, Libyan Army forces near Gaddafi's hometown of Sirte fired a Scud missile toward anti-Gaddafi positions in Cyrenaica, well over 100 kilometers away. The missile struck the desert near Ajdabiya, causing no casualties. On 22 August 2011, a second Scud-B also fired by Gaddafi forces in Sirte. On 23 August, opposition forces in Misrata reported that four Scud-B missiles were fired against the city from Sirte, but had caused no damage. Initial claims that an Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System-equipped US Navy cruiser shot down the missiles over the Gulf of Sidra were later denied by US DoD officials.
On December 12, 2012, it was reported by various outlets that the Syrian Army has begun using short-range ballistic missiles against rebels in the Syrian civil war. According to NATO officials, "allied intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance assets" had detected the launch of a number (later reports said at least 6) of unguided, short-range ballistic missiles inside Syria. The trajectory and distance travelled indicated that they were Scud-type missiles, although no information on the type of Scud being used was provided at the time. An American intelligence official, who asked not to be identified, confirmed that missiles had been fired from the Damascus area at targets in northern Syria, where the majority of the rebels' bases and facilities are located.
Three districts in the rebel-held eastern part of Aleppo and the nearby city of Tel Rifat were hit by ballistic missiles on February 22, 2013, flattening up to 20 houses in each of the places hit. Human Rights Watch inspector Ole Solvang toured the areas supposedly targeted by SCUDs on February 25, saying that he "has never seen such destruction" during his past visits to the country. According to the New York-based organization at least 141 people were killed in the attacks, including 71 children. The statement added that there was no sign of rebel presence in the areas hit, meaning that the attacks were unlawful. Syrian Information Minister Omran al-Zoabi denied the government was using ballistic weapons, even as opposition activists claimed more than 30 had been launched since December 2012.
The current operators of Scuds or Scud derivatives are:
- (Scud-B): 8 launchers, 32 missiles
- (Scud-B, Hwasong-6,project-t)
- (Scud-B, Hwasong-5, Shahab-1, Shahab-2, Rodong-1)
- (Unknown number of captured Iraqi Scuds)
- (Scud-B, Scud-C, Hwasong-5, Hwasong-6,Hwasong-7, Rodong-1)
- (Scud-B, Scud-C, Scud-D, Hwasong-6, Hwasong-7)
- ( Scud-B)
- c. 30 Scud-B missiles and four TELs acquired in 1995, and converted into targets by Lockheed Martin.
- (Scud-B, Scud-D, Scud-C)
- (Scud-B) - 4 launchers, ~50 missiles, retired in 2005.
- Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
- (Scud-B, Scud-C?) - 43+ launchers, 2000+ missiles.
- 60 launchers, retired in May 2005
- (Scud-B) - 36 launchers, retired, destroyed
- (Scud-B) - 30 launchers
- (Scud-B) - 27 launchers, retired
- (Scud-A, Scud-B) - 24 launchers plus decoys, retired 1990
- (Scud-B) - 9 launchers, retired, destroyed in 1995
- (Scud-B, Al-Hussein, Al-Abbas) - 24-36 launchers plus decoys, 819 missiles, plus 11 MAZ-543 launchers for Al-Hussein.
- (Scud-B) - 30 launchers, retired
- (Scud-B) - 18 launchers, retired
- (Scud-C, Scud-D) - ~300 launchers remaining at the dissolution of the Soviet Union, retired
- 6 launchers
- ~660 launchers
- 25 Hwasong-5s purchased from North Korea in 1989. The UAE military were not satisfied with the quality of the missiles, and they were kept in storage.
- 50 launchers and 185 missiles, destroyed
- (Scud-B) - retired
- (Scud-B, Scud-D, Scud-C)
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