^ 1.01.11.21.31.4Size, mass and luminosity estimates are all considerably uncertain due to insufficient knowledge of the Cephei star system: Professor Kaler writes "in truth we really do not know". Its distance cannot be measured from parallax; instead it is derived from its assumed membership in the Cepheus OB2 association, but this is also not certain. Other methods give a range of sizes between 1000 and 2200 that of the Sun, but these too are confounded by the fact that the star is not spherical, which leads to overestimates. (J. Kaler)
^1. a b c Professor James B. (Jim) Kaler. "VV CEP (VV Cephei)". University of Illinois. 存档副本. [2010-03-15]. （原始内容存档于2009-02-01）.. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
^Habets, G. M. H. J.; Heintze, J. R. W. (November 1981). "Empirical bolometric corrections for the main-sequence". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement 46: 193–237. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981A&AS...46..193H. Retrieved 2010-03-14. Page 225 "Table IV" #178