博士後

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博士後,又稱博士後研究員,指那些在取得博士学位之後在大学或科研机构中有限期地专门从事相关研究或深造的人。博士後工作的機構稱為“博士後科研流動站”或“博士後科研工作站”。作為有期限的工作(研究)人員,在工作期滿後,必須退出博士後站點。

一個博士後位置從本質上來說就是一個工作(研究)崗位,它通常為有限期的,從6個月到5年不等。博士後的資助形式常為工資或獎學金。設置一個博士後崗位或從事博士後研究的理由通常有:

  • 大學或研究機構無法提供一個無限期的工作或研究崗位
  • 提升自身的科研能力,同時發表更多的論文
  • 積累經驗及資歷,以便獲得某個職位或職稱

中國[编辑]

起源[编辑]

著名物理學家李政道教授在中國博士後制度等確立過程中起到了關鍵作用。他于1983年3月和1984年5月兩次給中國國家領導人寫信,建議建立博士後科研流動站、實行博士後制度,鄧小平在會見李政道時對此贊同;此後,當時的國家科委教育部中國科學院迅速向國務院報送了《關於試辦博士後科研流動站的報告》;1985年7月,國務院正式批准該報告,博士後制度由此在中國正式確立[1]

在中國,高等学校和科研机构,或大型企业、高新技术企业、留学人员创业园和科研生产型事业单位均有資格開設博士後站點[2]

  • 博士後科研流動站:在高等學校或科研院校的某個一級學科範圍內,經批准設立的可以招收博士後研究人員的組織
  • 博士後科研工作站:在企業、科研生產型事業單位和特殊的區域性機構內,經批准可以招收和培養博士後研究人員的組織

誤解[编辑]

在中國大陸,公眾常有誤解,以為博士後是比博士更高一級的學位,所以常把“做博士後研究”錯誤地稱為“讀博士後”[3][4][5][6]。尽管近年来公众对于博士后有了准确的了解,但是依然在习惯上使用“读博士后”。

美國[编辑]

In the US, a postdoctoral scholar is an individual holding a doctoral degree who is engaged in mentored research and/or scholarly training for the purpose of acquiring the professional skills needed to pursue a career path of his or her choosing.[7] Postdoctoral researchers play an important role in spearheading research activity in the US. The median salary of postdoctoral researchers is $42,000 a year for up to 5 years after receiving their doctoral degrees — 44% less than that of tenured positions.[8] The National Postdoctoral Association (NPA)[9] is a member-driven organization that provides a voice for postdoctoral scholars in the United States.

Postdoctoral research may be required for obtaining a tenure-track faculty position, especially at research-oriented institutions. Post-doctoral appointments that were traditionally optional have become mandatory in some fields as the degree of competition for tenure-track positions in academia has significantly increased over previous decades. In fact, the small supply of the professional positions in academia compared to the growing number of postdoctoral researchers makes it difficult to find tenure-track positions. In 2008, the proportion of postdoctoral researchers who got a tenure or tenure-track within 5 years after they received a doctoral degree was about 39%;[8] nearly 10% of postdoctoral researchers were still waiting for tenure-track positions over 40 in 2003.[10]

On the other hand, 85 percent of engineering doctoral degrees holder are likely to initially go into business or industry sector.[11] Under the circumstances, providing doctoral students as well as postdoctoral researchers with necessary skills for nonacademic positions has become one of the important roles for graduate schools and institutions. The America COMPETES Act recognized the importance of graduate student support for obtaining skills needed when they pursue nonacademic careers, and required National Science Foundation (NSF) to increase or decrease funding for the Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) programs[12] at least at the same rate as it increases or decreases funding for the Graduate Research Fellowship program. IGERT has been providing Ph.D. graduate students with more interdisciplinary experience, broad based professional and technical skill, various training needed in nonacademic careers, off-campus internships and career information since 1998.

There are no comprehensive data of postdoctoral researchers in the US because of the less-organized survey and the difficulty in counting international postdoctoral researchers. The proportion of postdoctoral researchers on temporary visas reached 53.6% in 2010.[13]

In the US, life sciences have a greater share than other fields due to higher federal funding of life and medical science areas since mid 1990 [來源請求]. One survey shows that 54% of postdoctoral researchers major in life sciences, whereas those who majored in physical science, mathematics, and engineering account for 28%.[14]

In 2010, postdoctoral researchers in California formed a union, UAW Local 5810 in order to secure better working conditions such as the right to file a complaint for alleged discrimination or sexual harassment through a formal grievance procedure.[15] In California, new postdoctoral appointments receive at least the NIH postdoctoral minimum salary ($39,264 in 2011) and many receive annual pay raises of 5-7% or more in accordance with the NIH’s Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards (NRSA).[16]

英国[编辑]

英国,25%研究自然科学的博士继续从事博士后研究。[17]

Since the landmark ruling in the employment tribunal (Scotland) Ball vs Aberdeen University 2008 case (S/101486/08), researchers who have held successive fixed-term contracts for four years service are no longer temporary employees but are entitled to the open-ended contracts.[18]

澳大利亚[编辑]

Salaried appointments at the minimum Level A, Step 6 for academic salaries, for doctoral qualified employees (从2008年开始) are set at A$75,612 p.a. at the 悉尼大学,[19] A$75,404 p.a. at the 墨尔本大学,[20] and A$75,612 p.a. at the 新南威尔士大学.[21]

另外,澳大利亚研究理事会(ARC)提供给博士后奖学金。For example their Discovery Projects,[22] funds 3 year Fellowships, beginning in 2009, with A$61,399 p.a.[23] Furthermore, a mandatory superannuation payment of 11-17% is paid by Universities.[24]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ 中國博士後制度的產生. 中國博士後. 2003-04-10 [2010-05-14]. 
  2. ^ 博士後制度的有關概念. 中國博士後. 2003-04-11 [2010-05-14]. 
  3. ^ 周思源. 博士勿需再读“博士后”. 中国教育和科研计算机网. [2010-05-16]. 
  4. ^ 尹希:哈佛首例本科直读博士后. 新華網安徽頻道. 2008-09-16 [2010-05-16]. 
  5. ^ 回国读博士后推荐手续. 中华人民共和国驻日本福冈总领馆教育室. [2010-05-16]. 
  6. ^ 28歲女博士放棄讀博士後 當上女鎮長. CCTV.com. 2009-06-24 [2010-05-16]. 
  7. ^ What is a Postdoc?. (原始内容存档于2015-04-02). 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Science and Engineering Labor Force. In Science and Engineering Indicators 2012. 
  9. ^ Gewin, V. The spread of postdoc unions. Nature. 2010, 467 (7316): 739–41. doi:10.1038/467638a. PMID 20930810. 
  10. ^ http://www.sigmaxi.org/postdoc/highlights.pdf[失效連結]
  11. ^ Pathway Through Graduate School and Into Careers. 
  12. ^ Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship Program. 
  13. ^ Graduate Enrollment in Science and Engineering Grew Substantially in the Past Decade but Slowed in 2010. 
  14. ^ Postdoctoral Education Survey Summary of Results. 
  15. ^ Kristen Minogue. California Postdocs Embrace Union Contract. Science Insider. Aug 13, 2010 [June 22, 2011]. 
  16. ^ Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA) Stipends, Tuition/Fees and Other Budgetary Levels Effective for Fiscal Year 2012. National Institutes of Health. 
  17. ^ UK GRAD Programme: Physical sciences and engineering PhD graduates from 2003 at a glance. [2007-12-04]. 
  18. ^ UCU - University and College Union - Research staff. 
  19. ^ http://www.usyd.edu.au/hr/eb/2006/AC_annual_rates.pdf, Retrieved on 4 June 2012
  20. ^ http://policy.unimelb.edu.au/UOM0115#section-1.1.1, Retrieved on 4 June 2012
  21. ^ http://www.hr.unsw.edu.au/services/salaries/acadsal.html, Retrieved on 4 June 2012
  22. ^ Discovery Projects - Australian Research Council (ARC)
  23. ^ Appendix 3, p. 58, http://www.arc.gov.au/pdf/DP09_FundingRules.pdf, Retrieved on 22 July 2008
  24. ^ http://www.hr.unimelb.edu.au/benefits/superannuation, Retrieved on 22 July 2008