巴力西卜

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天路歷程》中的巴力西卜

巴力西卜(Beelzebub 或 Beel-Zebub),又譯為別西卜,天主教譯為贝耳则步,意思為“蒼蠅王”,非利士人的神,新約聖經中稱別西卜為「魔王」,聖經七大罪的暴食。傳說祂原本是熾天使中聖歌隊的成員,在創世記戰爭中戰敗而墮落。惡魔學裡認爲他是地獄的最高統帥,約翰·彌爾頓將其描繪成是外貌威嚴的智者,是最強大的墮天使

語源[编辑]

“Beelzebub”一詞來自《列王紀下》(2 Kings 1:2–3, 6, 16),希伯來聖經原文作“Ba'al Zəbûb”,是非利士人崇拜的神。 一般的说法是“Ba'al Zəbûb”直译即“苍蝇王”[1][2][3][4][5],这可能与非利士人崇拜蒼蠅的習俗有關[6]。烏加里特人也認為別西卜(烏加里特語:Baal)會驅使蒼蠅、使人得病[6]

“Beelzebul”一詞則來自《所罗门之约》,這裡它作為魔王(Prince of Demons)和原天使統領出現。這可能是路西法的另一種稱呼。[7]

此外,別西卜還也見於聖經的其他章節中,如《馬太福音》第十二章:

文學中的形象[编辑]

在《失樂園》中記載別西卜未墮落前,是一位純善的天使,並且還是在天使中等級最高的六翼熾天使,它不光擁有高貴無暇的六翼,還直接服侍於上帝,屬於熾天使聖歌隊的一員。但是卻在接觸指引人類的過程中,悄然發生了轉變,不知道是因為發現了秘密還是感受到了人類的不合理之處,別西卜竟變得失去了理智,開始質疑起上帝的旨意和人類存在的意義,而當路西法率領著天國三分之一的天使反叛時,身為智者的別西卜,明明知道上帝不可戰勝,卻仍然參加了這種必敗無疑的戰爭,並且當路西法敗下陣時,別西卜便第一個帶領著其他的墮天使們舉劍而上,拉開了戰爭的帷幕。而也正因為如此,在墮天使們被戰敗時,別西卜的下場便極為慘烈,它不僅被上帝活生生撕扯下了一對羽翼,變為了四翼,還被從天國之中拋下,與路西法一同,在混沌之中墜落了九個昏晨,才落到了地獄深處,就連原本潔白無瑕的羽翼,也被地獄的火焰和濃煙,熏染的漆黑醜陋。別西卜墮落後,成為了撒旦級中的魔王,並在七宗罪中代表暴食,同時在地獄中擁有統領眾鬼的權力,所以被稱為鬼王,而蒼蠅王的形態亦是很有名的。

科兰·戴·布兰西在『地獄辭典』第6版插畫描述的巴力西卜(1863年,巴黎)

次文化[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Herrmann. Baal Zebub. Toorn, K. v. d.; Becking, B.; Horst, P. W. v. d. (编). Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible 2nd extensively rev. (154). Leiden; Boston MA; Grand Rapids, MI: Brill; Eerdmans. 1999. For etymological reasons, Baal Zebub must be considered a Semitic god; he is taken over by the Philistine Ekronites and incorporated into their local cult. 
  2. ^ Arndt, W.; Danker, F. W.; Bauer, W. Βεελζεβούλ. A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature 3rd (173). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 2000. Βεελζεβούλ, ὁ indecl. (v.l. Βεελζεβούβ and Βεεζεβούλ W-S. §5, 31, cp. 27 n. 56) Beelzebul, orig. a Philistine deity; the name בַּעַל זְבוּב means Baal (lord) of those who are capable of flying (4 Km 1:2, 6; Sym. transcribes βεελζεβούβ; Vulgate Beelzebub; TestSol freq. Βεελζεβούλ,-βουέλ). 
  3. ^ Balz, H. R.; Schneider, G. Exegetical dictionary of the New Testament 1 (211). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. 1990. 1. According to 2 Kgs 1:2–6 the name of the Philistine god of Ekron was Lord of the Flies (Heb. ba'al zeaûḇ), from whom Israel's King Ahaziah requested an oracle. 
  4. ^ Lewis. Beelzebul. Freedman, D. N. (编). The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary 1 (639). New York, NY: Doubleday. 1996. The etymology of Beelzebul has proceeded in several directions. The variant reading Beelzebub (Syriac translators and Jerome) reflects a long-standing tradition of equating Beelzebul with the Philistine deity of the city of Ekron mentioned in 2 Kgs 1:2, 3, 6, 16. Baalzebub (Heb ba˓al zĕbûb) seems to mean "lord of flies" (HALAT, 250, but cf. LXXB baal muian theon akkarōn, "Baal-Fly, god of Akkaron"; Ant 9:2, 1 theon muian). 
  5. ^ Herrmann. Baal Zebub. Toorn, K. v. d.; Becking, B.; Horst, P. W. v. d. (编). Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible 2nd extensively rev. (154). Leiden; Boston, MA; Grand Rapids, MI: Brill; Eerdmans. 1999. On the basis zebub, 'flies', the name of the god was interpreted as 'Lord of the flies'; it was assumed that he was a god who could cause or cure diseases. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Freedman, David Noel. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. 2000: 137. ISBN 9780802824004. 
  7. ^ . 由F. C. Conybeare翻译 . The Testament of Solomon. Jewish Quarterly Review (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: The University of Pennsylvania Press). October 1898, 11 (1) [July 17, 2018]. 

外部連接[编辑]