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新法蘭西

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新法蘭西副王區
Viceroyauté de Nouvelle France
1534年-1763年
新法兰西国旗
法蘭西皇家旗幟[1][2][3][4]
新法兰西皇家紋章
皇家紋章
1712年
1712年
蓝色区域为新法兰西
蓝色区域为新法兰西
地位法国殖民地
首都魁北克市
常用语言加拿大法語
宗教羅馬天主教
政府君主制
法蘭西國王 
副王 
立法机构Conseil souverain de la Nouvelle-France (fr)法语Conseil souverain de la Nouvelle-France
历史 
• 建立
1534年
1759年
1760年
1763年2月10日
货币新法蘭西里弗尔
继承
魁北克省
新斯科舍省
魯伯領地
紐芬蘭
路易斯安那
聖皮埃爾和密克隆

新法蘭西(法語:Nouvelle-France;英語:New France),法國位於北美洲殖民地。北起哈德遜灣,南至墨西哥灣,包含聖羅倫斯河密西西比河流域,劃分成加拿大阿卡迪亞紐芬蘭島路易斯安那四個區域。[5]

1681年的北美洲地圖

1524年,義大利航海家維拉薩諾探索了北美洲東岸並為新土地命名為Francesca英语Francesca,以紀念法國國王法蘭索瓦一世。但是,法國大部分人最初對這裡未感興趣。然而,法國漁船繼續航行當地;而法國客商亦很快體會聖勞倫斯地區有大量可貴的毛皮,特別是海狸的毛皮在歐洲十分罕見。最終,法國人決定拓殖Francesca,以擴展其在美洲的影響力。

為了保持毛皮貿易,法國萨缪尔·德·尚普兰與當地的阿貢昆人和Montagnais人合作,對抗由其他原住民族組成的易洛魁聯盟。他亦準備送年輕的法國人與當地人生活,學習他們的語言和風俗,以幫助法國人適應在北美洲的生活。這些人擴大了法國對南部和西部的影響。

當時南部的英國十三殖民地人口眾多,而且十分富裕。路易十三的主要大臣黎塞留希望可以讓新法蘭西像英國殖民地一樣富裕。他在新法蘭西投資,任命尚普兰為新法蘭西的副王。

之後,黎塞留也禁止了非羅馬天主教徒居住在新法蘭西,使許多人改住在英國殖民地。

至18世纪中叶,法国定居点仍然发展较好。人口大约70000人,主要是靠自然增长。[6][7]在法国统治下的欧洲人人口增长缓慢。[8][9][10]南部沿着大西洋海岸的十三殖民地人口不断增长,并且有更多来自欧洲的移民。至1760年代,约有160万人居住在英国殖民地。人口与新法兰西相比是23比1。1763年七年战争结束后,英国接管了新法兰西北部地区,1867年这些地区被并入加拿大,法国于1803年将路易斯安那领地出售给美国,使美国的领土面积扩大了一倍。

直至至今,在前新法兰西的领土中,只剩下圣皮埃尔和密克隆仍然由法国控制。

參見[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ New York State Historical Association. Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association with the Quarterly Journal: 2nd-21st Annual Meeting with a List of New Members. The Association. 1915. It is most probable that the Bourbon Flag was used during the greater part of the occupancy of the French in the region extending southwest from the St. Lawrence to the Mississippi , known as New France... The French flag was probably blue at that time with three golden fleur - de - lis .... 
  2. ^ Background: The First National Flags. The Canadian Encyclopedia. 28 November 2019 [1 March 2021]. At the time of New France (1534 to the 1760s), two flags could be viewed as having national status. The first was the banner of France — a blue square flag bearing three gold fleurs-de-lys. It was flown above fortifications in the early years of the colony. For instance, it was flown above the lodgings of Pierre Du Gua de Monts at Île Sainte-Croix in 1604. There is some evidence that the banner also flew above Samuel de Champlain’s habitation in 1608. ..... the completely white flag of the French Royal Navy was flown from ships, forts and sometimes at land-claiming ceremonies. 
  3. ^ INQUINTE.CA | CANADA 150 Years of History ~ The story behind the flag. inquinte.ca. When Canada was settled as part of France and dubbed "New France," two flags gained national status. One was the Royal Banner of France. This featured a blue background with three gold fleurs-de-lis. A white flag of the French Royal Navy was also flown from ships and forts and sometimes flown at land-claiming ceremonies. 
  4. ^ Wallace, W. Stewart. Flag of New France. The Encyclopedia of Canada II. Toronto: University Associates of Canada: 350–351. 1948. During the French régime in Canada, there does not appear to have been any French national flag in the modern sense of the term. The "Banner of France", which was composed of fleur-de-lys on a blue field, came nearest to being a national flag, since it was carried before the king when he marched to battle, and thus in some sense symbolized the kingdom of France. During the later period of French rule, it would seem that the emblem...was a flag showing the fleur-de-lys on a white ground.... as seen in Florida. There were, however, 68 flags authorized for various services by Louis XIV in 1661; and a number of these were doubtless used in New France 
  5. ^ R. Douglas Francis; Richard Jones; Donald B. Smith. Journeys: A History of Canada. Cengage Learning. 2009: 51. ISBN 0-17-644244-8. 
  6. ^ Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present. Statistics Canada. 2009 [August 26, 2010]. 
  7. ^ David L. Preston. The Texture of Contact: European and Indian Settler Communities on the Frontiers of Iroquoia, 1667–1783. U of Nebraska Press. 2009: 43. ISBN 978-0-8032-2549-7. 
  8. ^ John Powell. Encyclopedia of North American Immigration. Infobase Publishing. 2009: 203. ISBN 978-1-4381-1012-7. 
  9. ^ Ronald J. Dale. The Fall of New France: How the French Lost a North American Empire 1754–1763. James Lorimer & Company. 2004: 2. ISBN 978-1-55028-840-7. 
  10. ^ John E. Findling; Frank W. Thackeray. What Happened?: An Encyclopedia of Events that Changed America Forever. ABC-CLIO. 2011: 38. ISBN 978-1-59884-621-8.