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朱庇特

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朱庇特與忒提斯
安格爾作於1811年。

朱比特拉丁語Iuppiter),又译朱庇特,是古罗马神话中的眾神之王,相对应于古希腊神话宙斯希腊语Ζεύς),西方天文学木星的称呼以其命名。另外拉丁语中的“星期四”这个词也起源朱比特的名字,后来影响了许多西方语言

神話傳說[编辑]

Painting of a bearded, seated Jupiter, unclothed from the waist up and holding a staff
庞贝壁畫上朱庇特與老鷹和地球

A dominant line of scholarship has held that Rome lacked a body of myths in its earliest period, or that this original mythology has been irrecoverably obscured by the influence of the 希腊神话.[1] After the Hellenization英语Hellenization of Roman culture, Latin literature and iconography reinterpreted the myths of Zeus in depictions and narratives of Jupiter. In the legendary history of Rome, Jupiter is often connected to kings and kingship.

出生[编辑]

朱諾和朱庇特在帕莱斯特里纳的雕像中通常被認為是由福尔图娜負責照顧扶養[2],而從帕莱斯特里纳的銘文卻指出福尔图娜是朱庇特的兒女[3]。杰奎琳·香浦(Jacqueline Champeaux)認為這個矛盾是因為不同文化和宗教階段交流的結果,其中來自希臘的交流使得福尔图娜變成了朱庇特的女兒。[4]宙斯的童年時期在希臘宗教、藝術和文學上都是重要的題材,但朱庇特的童年時期的描写卻十分罕見。[5]

努馬[编辑]

在古代氣候惡劣的期間,國王努马·庞皮里乌斯想藉由召喚朱庇特詢問他的意見[6]努马使用酒和蜂蜜成功灌醉皮卡斯(Picus)與福努斯(Faunus)兩位半神而成功召喚朱庇特,朱庇特要求要「頭」,而努馬巧妙的提出用洋蔥頭代替,朱庇特改要「人頭」,努馬亦接話改為人頭上的頭髮,朱庇特最後要求要活的頭,奴馬卻給了魚,而朱庇特同意他的要求。 Jupiter promised that at the sunrise of the following day he would give to Numa and the Roman people pawns of the imperium. The following day, after throwing three lightning bolts across a clear sky, Jupiter sent down from heaven a shield. Since this shield had no angles, Numa named it ancile; because in it resided the fate of the imperium, he had many copies made of it to disguise the real one. He asked the smith Mamurius Veturius英语Mamurius Veturius to make the copies, and gave them to the Salii英语Salii. As his only reward, Mamurius expressed the wish that his name be sung in the last of their carmina.[7] Plutarch gives a slightly different version of the story, writing that the cause of the miraculous drop of the shield was a plague and not linking it with the Roman imperium.[8]

圖魯斯[编辑]

Throughout his reign, 圖路斯·荷提里烏斯 had a scornful attitude towards religion. His temperament was warlike, and he disregarded religious rites and piety. After conquering the Albani people英语Albani people with the duel between the Horatii and Curiatii英语Horatii and Curiatii, Tullus destroyed 阿尔巴朗格 and deported its inhabitants to Rome. As 蒂托·李维 tells the story, omens (Glossary of ancient Roman religion#prodigium英语Glossary of ancient Roman religion#prodigium) in the form of a rain of stones occurred on the Alban Mount英语Alban Mount because the deported Albans had disregarded their ancestral rites linked to the sanctuary of Jupiter. In addition to the omens, a voice was heard requesting that the Albans perform the rites. A plague followed and at last the king himself fell ill. As a consequence, the warlike character of Tullus broke down; he resorted to religion and petty, superstitious practices. At last, he found a book by Numa recording a secret rite on how to evoke Iuppiter Elicius. The king attempted to perform it, but since he executed the rite improperly the god threw a lightning bolt which burned down the king's house and killed Tullus.[9]

老塔克文[编辑]

When approaching Rome (where Tarquin was heading to try his luck in politics after unsuccessful attempts in his native 塔尔奎尼亚), an eagle swooped down, removed his hat, flew screaming in circles, replaced the hat on his head and flew away. Tarquin's wife Tanaquil英语Tanaquil interpreted this as a sign that he would become king based on the bird, the quadrant of the sky from which it came, the god who had sent it and the fact it touched his hat (an item of clothing placed on a man's most noble part, the head).[10]

The Elder Tarquin is credited with introducing the Capitoline Triad to Rome, by building the so-called Capitolium Vetus. Macrobius writes this issued from his Samothracian mystery beliefs.[11]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Hendrik Wagenvoort英语Hendrik Wagenvoort, "Characteristic Traits of Ancient Roman Religion," in Pietas: Selected Studies in Roman Religion (Brill, 1980), p. 241, ascribing the view that there was no early Roman mythology to Walter Friedrich Otto英语Walter Friedrich Otto and his school.
  2. ^ Described by Cicero, De divinatione英语De divinatione 2.85, as cited by R. Joy Littlewood, "Fortune," in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome (Oxford University Press, 2010), vol. 1, p. 212.
  3. ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum英语Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum 1.60, as cited by Littlewood, "Fortune," p. 212.
  4. ^ J. Champeaux Fortuna. Le culte de la Fortune à Rome et dans le monde romain. I Fortuna dans la religion archaïque 1982 Rome: Publications de l'Ecole Française de Rome; as reviewed by John Scheid in Revue de l' histoire des religions 1986 203 1: pp. 67–68 (Comptes rendus).
  5. ^ William Warde Fowler英语William Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic (London, 1908), pp. 223–225.
  6. ^ Dumézil 1977 pp. 51–52 and 197.
  7. ^ Ovid Fasti III, 284–392. Festus s.v. Mamuri Veturi p. 117 L as cited by Dumézil 1977 p. 197.
  8. ^ Plutarch Numa 18.
  9. ^ Dumézil 1977 p. 175 citing Livy I 31.
  10. ^ R. Bloch Prodigi e divinazione nell' antica Roma Roma 1973. Citing Livy I 34, 8–10.
  11. ^ Macrobius Saturnalia III 6.