A dominant line of scholarship has held that Rome lacked a body of myths in its earliest period, or that this original mythology has been irrecoverably obscured by the influence of the 希腊神话. After the Hellenization of Roman culture, Latin literature and iconography reinterpreted the myths of Zeus in depictions and narratives of Jupiter. In the legendary history of Rome, Jupiter is often connected to kings and kingship.
在古代氣候惡劣的期間，國王努马·庞皮里乌斯想藉由召喚朱庇特詢問他的意見努马使用酒和蜂蜜成功灌醉皮卡斯（Picus）與福努斯（Faunus）兩位半神而成功召喚朱庇特，朱庇特要求要「頭」，而努馬巧妙的提出用洋蔥頭代替，朱庇特改要「人頭」，努馬亦接話改為人頭上的頭髮，朱庇特最後要求要活的頭，奴馬卻給了魚，而朱庇特同意他的要求。 Jupiter promised that at the sunrise of the following day he would give to Numa and the Roman people pawns of the imperium. The following day, after throwing three lightning bolts across a clear sky, Jupiter sent down from heaven a shield. Since this shield had no angles, Numa named it ancile; because in it resided the fate of the imperium, he had many copies made of it to disguise the real one. He asked the smith Mamurius Veturius to make the copies, and gave them to the Salii. As his only reward, Mamurius expressed the wish that his name be sung in the last of their carmina. Plutarch gives a slightly different version of the story, writing that the cause of the miraculous drop of the shield was a plague and not linking it with the Roman imperium.
Throughout his reign, 圖路斯·荷提里烏斯 had a scornful attitude towards religion. His temperament was warlike, and he disregarded religious rites and piety. After conquering the Albani people with the duel between the Horatii and Curiatii, Tullus destroyed 阿尔巴朗格 and deported its inhabitants to Rome. As 蒂托·李维 tells the story, omens (Glossary of ancient Roman religion#prodigium) in the form of a rain of stones occurred on the Alban Mount because the deported Albans had disregarded their ancestral rites linked to the sanctuary of Jupiter. In addition to the omens, a voice was heard requesting that the Albans perform the rites. A plague followed and at last the king himself fell ill. As a consequence, the warlike character of Tullus broke down; he resorted to religion and petty, superstitious practices. At last, he found a book by Numa recording a secret rite on how to evoke Iuppiter Elicius. The king attempted to perform it, but since he executed the rite improperly the god threw a lightning bolt which burned down the king's house and killed Tullus.
When approaching Rome (where Tarquin was heading to try his luck in politics after unsuccessful attempts in his native 塔尔奎尼亚), an eagle swooped down, removed his hat, flew screaming in circles, replaced the hat on his head and flew away. Tarquin's wife Tanaquil interpreted this as a sign that he would become king based on the bird, the quadrant of the sky from which it came, the god who had sent it and the fact it touched his hat (an item of clothing placed on a man's most noble part, the head).
The Elder Tarquin is credited with introducing the Capitoline Triad to Rome, by building the so-called Capitolium Vetus. Macrobius writes this issued from his Samothracian mystery beliefs.
- Hendrik Wagenvoort, "Characteristic Traits of Ancient Roman Religion," in Pietas: Selected Studies in Roman Religion (Brill, 1980), p. 241, ascribing the view that there was no early Roman mythology to Walter Friedrich Otto and his school.
- Described by Cicero, De divinatione 2.85, as cited by R. Joy Littlewood, "Fortune," in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome (Oxford University Press, 2010), vol. 1, p. 212.
- Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum 1.60, as cited by Littlewood, "Fortune," p. 212.
- J. Champeaux Fortuna. Le culte de la Fortune à Rome et dans le monde romain. I Fortuna dans la religion archaïque 1982 Rome: Publications de l'Ecole Française de Rome; as reviewed by John Scheid in Revue de l' histoire des religions 1986 203 1: pp. 67–68 (Comptes rendus).
- William Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic (London, 1908), pp. 223–225.
- Dumézil 1977 pp. 51–52 and 197.
- Ovid Fasti III, 284–392. Festus s.v. Mamuri Veturi p. 117 L as cited by Dumézil 1977 p. 197.
- Plutarch Numa 18.
- Dumézil 1977 p. 175 citing Livy I 31.
- R. Bloch Prodigi e divinazione nell' antica Roma Roma 1973. Citing Livy I 34, 8–10.
- Macrobius Saturnalia III 6.