葉鬚蟲目

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葉鬚蟲目
Tomopteriskils.jpg
浮游的多毛綱物種浮蠶屬Tomopteris
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 環節動物門 Annelida
纲: 多毛綱 Polychaeta
亚纲: 足刺亞綱 Errantia
目: 葉鬚蟲目 Phyllodocida
Dales英语Dales, 1962[1]
亞目

見內文

葉鬚蟲目(學名:Phyllodocida)是多毛綱足刺亞綱之下一個[2]。這些物種主要在海洋生活,而有少量生活於鹹淡水交界處。本目物種大多數是活躍的底棲生物,在沉積物的表面上移動或在當中挖洞,又或居住在基岩的裂縫和縫隙中。當中有部分物種會建造棲管,又有部分是浮游生物。據估計,約有3500種物種[3]

特徵[编辑]

葉鬚蟲目是有體節物種,身長從數毫米到超過一米不等。每個體節均有一對似的疣足口前葉一般有一對到兩對眼睛,背部有一對觸角,a ventral pair of sensory palps and a pair of organs on the neck. The peristomium is a ring, often hidden dorsally by the prostomium and the first segment. There is a muscular proboscis with one or more pairs of jaws. The next few segments tend to differ from those further back in having enlarged dorsal and ventral cirri (fine appendages) and reduced parapodial lobes and chaetae (bristles). Some species have appendages with specialised functions but most have many segments that are similar to each other but which vary in size and shape along the length of the body without abrupt changes in the chaetae and parapodia from one to the next.[3]

食性[编辑]

本目物種一般皆為捕食性動物腐食性動物[4]

支序分類關係[编辑]

本目的三個主要子群體為:鱗沙蠶亞目Aphroditiformia)、吻沙蠶亞目Glyceriformia)及沙蠶亞目Nereidiformia):

  • 鱗沙蠶亞目的特色為其物種每隔一個體節會長有質的背鱗elytraescales);
  • The Glyceriformia are characterised by the presence of unique cone-shaped and ringed prostomiums.
  • The Nereidiformia are more problematic, having no universally distinguishing common features.

There is agreement on the monophyly of a group including the Hesionidae, Nereididae and Chrysopetalidae families but opinions differ about Pilargidae, and molecular and morphological studies continue.[5][6][7]

分類[编辑]

葉鬚蟲目原為足刺目之下的一個亞目。後來足刺目升格成為足刺亞綱,其下的葉鬚蟲亞目亦升格成為葉鬚蟲目。以下為本目所包含的四個亞目及再之下的各個科[2][8]

鱗沙蠶亞目 Aphroditiformia

鱗沙蠶總科 Aphroditoidea
Acoetidae Kinberg, 1856
鳞沙蚕科 Aphroditidae Malmgren, 1867
Eulepethidae Chamberlin, 1919
Pholoidae Kinberg, 1858
多鱗蟲科 Polynoidae Malmgren, 1867
Sigalionidae Malmgren, 1867
Superfamily Chrysopetalacea
Chrysopetalidae Ehlers, 1864
Superfamily Pisionacea
Pisionidae Southern, 1914

吻沙蠶亞目 Glyceriformia

吻沙蚕科 Glyceridae Grube, 1850
Goniadidae Kinberg, 1866
Lacydoniidae Bergström, 1914
Paralacydoniidae Pettibone, 1963

沙蠶亞目 Nereidiformia

Antonbruuniidae
海女蟲科 Hesionidae Grube, 1850
沙蠶科 Nereididae Johnston, 1865
Pilargidae Saint-Joseph, 1899
裂蟲科 Syllidae Grube, 1850

葉鬚蟲亞目 Phyllodociformia

眼蚕科 Alciopidae Ehlers, 1864
盘首蚕科 Lopadorhynchidae Claparede, 1868
葉鬚蟲科 Phyllodocidae Oersted, 1843
Pontodoridae Bergström, 1914

亞目地位未定[9]

Ichthyotomidae Eisig, 1906
Iospilidae Bergström, 1914
Nephtyidae Grube, 1850
Sphaerodoridae Malmgren, 1867
浮蚕科 Tomopteridae Grube, 1850
Typhloscolecidae Uljanin, 1878
Yndolaciidae Støp-Bowitz, 1987

地位未定

Nautiliniellidae Miura and Laubier, 1990

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Dales, R.P. The polychaete stomodeum and the inter-relationships of the families of Polychaeta.. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1962, 139 (3): 389–428 (英语). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 WoRMS. Phyllodocida. World Register of Marine Species. [2016-02-25]. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Tree of Life Web Project
  4. ^ 網絡生命大百科
  5. ^ Glasby, C.J. Family revision and cladistic analysis of the Nereidoidea (Polychaeta: Phyllodocida). Invertebr. Taxon. 1993, 7: 1551–1573 (英语). 
  6. ^ Pleijel, F.; Dahlgren, T.G. Position and delineation of Chrysopetalidae and Hesionidae (Annelida, Polychaeta, Phyllodocida). Cladistics. 1998, 14: 129–150 (英语). 
  7. ^ Dahlgren, T.G.; Lundberg, J.; Pleijel, F.; Sundberg, P. Morphological and molecular evidence of the phylogeny of Nereidiform polychaetes (Annelida). J. zool. Syst. evol. Res. 2000, 38: 249–253 (英语). 
  8. ^ Phyllodocida. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (英语). 
  9. ^ WoRMS. Phyllodocida incertae sedis. World Register of Marine Species. [2016-02-25]. 

外部連結[编辑]

維基物種中有關葉鬚蟲目的數據