蝾螺科

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蠑螺科
Turbo cornutus 1.jpg
Three views of a shell of Turbo cornutus with the operculum in place
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 軟體動物門 Mollusca
纲: 腹足纲 Gastropoda
總目: 古腹足总目 Vetigastropoda
目: 鐘螺目 Trochida
总科: 鐘螺總科 Trochoidea
科: 蠑螺科 Turbinidae
Rafinesque, 1815

見內文

蝾螺科(學名:Turbinidae)是一個包括有小型到大型海洋腹足纲软体动物的一個[1]。舊屬原始腹足目,現時蠑螺科是鐘螺目鐘螺總科之下的一個科[2]

本科在2005年的分類很龐大,包含多個亞科與物種[3],但這些亞科後來都從蠑螺科獨立出來,組成各自的科與總科,到現在又重聚到鐘螺總科之下[2]

型態特徵[编辑]

本科物種的一大特徵,是其鈣質口蓋英语Operculum (gastropod),使之與非常近似但有着角質口蓋的鐘螺科物種分辨開來。蠑螺科物種堅固的口蓋成為了牠們的一種被動的防禦構造,得以抵擋捕食者嘗試從其殼口英语aperture (mollusc)或殼唇進侵其柔軟的身體。

贝壳多呈陀螺形。分布于热带、亚热带、温带的海洋,以热带水域为多,栖息于潮间带到浅海之岩礁区。

分佈及棲息地[编辑]

按照Williams et al. (2008),蠑螺科物種由多個支序組成,而且無論在淺水區或深水區皆有其物種棲息[4]。本科物種有很廣闊的分佈範圍,從熱帶到極帶均有分佈,但絕大多數物種都棲息於熱帶及亞熱帶的淺水區。

分類[编辑]

蠑螺科原為前鰓亞綱原始腹足目蠑螺總科的成員。現時蠑螺總科成為了鐘螺總科的異名。然而,這一個頗為古老的腹足綱群組很可能源於2.98億到2.50億年前的二疊紀[5]。本科物種的型態仍然保有多種原始英语primitive (phylogenetics)特徵,例如:牠們的螺殼內的珠母層

2005年分類[编辑]

根據布歇特和洛克羅伊的腹足類分類 (2005年),蠑螺科是蠑螺總科的成員,由下列八個亞科組成[3]

  • Turbininae Rafinesque, 1815 - synonyms: Senectinae Swainson, 1840; Imperatorinae Gray, 1847; Astraliinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854; Astraeinae Davies, 1935; Bolmidae Delpey, 1941
  • 海豚螺亞科 Angariinae Gray, 1857[6]:又名棘冠螺亞科,Delphinulinae Stoliczka, 1868是本亞科的異名。
  • 縮口螺亞科 Colloniinae Cossmann, 1917[7][6]
    • tribe Colloniini Cossmann, 1917 - synonym: Bothropomatinae Thiele, 1924 (inv.); Homalopomatinae Keen, 1960; Petropomatinae Cox, 1960
    • tribe † Adeorbisinini Monari, Conti & szabo, 1995
    • tribe † Crossostomatini Cox, 1960
    • tribe † Helicocryptini Cox, 1960
  • Moellerinae Hickman & McLean, 1990
  • Moreanellinae J. C. Fischer & Weber, 1997
  • Prisogasterinae Hickman & McLean, 1990:異名: Prisogastrinae in Bouchet & Rocroi (2005),拼寫錯誤。[8]
  • 篷螺亞科 Skeneinae W. Clark, 1851[6]:Delphinoideinae Thiele, 1924是本亞科的異名。
  • Tegulinae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971

2008年分類[编辑]

Astraea rugosa (Linnaeus, 1767), a fossil turbinid from the Pliocene of Cyprus.

根據Williams et al. (2008)的研究成果,蠑螺科被重新定義,還被移到鐘螺總科[4]。與此同時,原來蠑螺科之下的海豚螺亞科獲提至科級,成為了鐘螺總科之下的海豚螺科Angariidae);而原來蠑螺科的縮口螺亞科在提升至科級成為縮口螺科Colloniidae)之餘,再與蠑螺總科雉螺科改為合組新的雉螺總科Phasianelloidea Swainson, 1840[4];Margaritinae was moved to Turbinidae from Trochidae[4]。這個時候的蠑螺科包括下列五個亞科[4]

下列在2005年分類提及過的亞科都保留了:

2017年分類[编辑]

亞倫氏螺屬Yaronia Mienis, 2011)被重新分到縮口螺科[11]

以下為本科現時餘下的屬[12]

[编辑]

The shell of Guildfordia yoka, a deep water turbinid

現時本科包括以下各屬:

不屬於任何亞科:
蠑螺亞科Turbininae[12]
Prisogasterinae Hickman & McLean, 1990
異名:
  • Astrea Link, 1807: synonym of Astraea Röding, 1798
  • Agathistoma Olsson & Harbison, 1953: synonym of Tegula Lesson, 1832
  • Amyxa Troschel, 1852: synonym of Prisogaster Mörch, 1850
  • Calcar Montfort, 1810: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Canthorbis Swainson, 1840: synonym of Astraea Röding, 1798
  • Cardinalia Gray, 1842: synonym of Tectus Montfort, 1810
  • Crosseia P. Fischer, 1885: synonym of Crossea A. Adams, 1865
  • Cyclocantha Swainson, 1840: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Dinassovica Iredale, 1937: synonym of Turbo (Turbo) Linnaeus, 1758 represented as Turbo Linnaeus, 1758
  • Distellifer Iredale, 1937: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Foliastralium Habe & Okutani, 1980: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Galeoastraea Habe, 1958: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
  • Halopsephus Rehder, 1943: synonym of Turbo (Halopsephus) Rehder, 1943 represented as Turbo Linnaeus, 1758
  • Harisazaea Habe, 1958: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
  • Imperator Montfort, 1810: synonym of Astraea Röding, 1798
  • Incilaster Finlay, 1926: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
  • Livona Gray, 1842: synonym of Cittarium Philippi, 1847
  • Lunatica Röding, 1798: synonym of Turbo Linnaeus, 1758
  • Macropelmus Gistel, 1848: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Margarita Leach, 1819: synonym of Margarites Gray, 1847
  • Micrastraea Cotton, 1939: synonym of Bellastraea Iredale, 1924
  • Notosetia Iredale, 1915: synonym of Putilla A. Adams, 1867
  • Okinawastraea Habe & Okutani, 1981: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Oobolma Sacco, 1896 : synonym of Bolma'' Risso, 1826
  • Ormastralium Sacco, 1896: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
  • Pachypoma Gray, 1850: synonym of Lithopoma Gray, 1850
  • Pagocalcar Iredale, 1937: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Pseudastralium Schepman, 1908: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
  • Pyramidea Swainson, 1840: synonym of Tectus Montfort, 1810
  • Pyramis Schumacher, 1817: synonym of Tectus Montfort, 1810
  • Rugastella Iredale, 1937: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Senobolma Okutani, 1964: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
  • Stella P. Fischer, 1885: synonym of Astralium Link, 1807
  • Submargarita Strebel, 1908: synonym of Lissotesta Iredale, 1915
  • Tharsiella Bush, 1897: synonym of Cirsonella Angas, 1877
  • Trochiscus G.B. Sowerby I, 1838: synonym of Norrisia Bayle, 1880
  • Tylastralium Sacco, 1896: synonym of Bolma Risso, 1826
  • Valvatella Gray, 1857: synonym of Margarites Gray, 1847

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Bouchet, P. Turbinidae Rafinesque, 1815. World Register of Marine Species. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Bouchet, P.; Rocroi, J.P.; Hausdorf, B.; Kaim    , A.; Kano    , Y.; Nützel  , A.; Parkhaev, P.; Schrödl, M.; Strong  , E.E. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia. 2017, 61 (1-2): 1–526. doi:10.4002/040.061.0201 (英语). 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Frýda, J.; Hausdorf, B.; Ponder, W.; Valdés, Á.; Warén, A. Bouchet P.; Rocroi J.-P., 编. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology (Hackenheim, Germany / Ann Arbor, USA: ConchBooks). 2005, 47 (1-2): 397 pp. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Williams, Suzanne T.; Karube, S.; Ozawa, T. Molecular systematics of Vetigastropoda: Trochidae, Turbinidae and Trochoidea redefined. Zoologica Scripta. 2008-09, 37 (5): 483–506. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00341.x (英语). 
  5. ^ Alf A., Kreipl K. & Poppe G. T. (2003) The Family Turbinidae, Subfamily Turbininae, Genus Turbo. In: Poppe G. T. & Groh K. (eds.): A Conchological Iconography: 68 pp., 95 colour plates, ConchBooks, Hackenheim, ISBN 3-925919-27-9.
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 引用错误:没有为名为dzz2002的参考文献提供内容
  7. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为WoRMS_382202的参考文献提供内容
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Gofas, S. Prisogasterinae. World Register of Marine Species. 2009 [2010-04-19]. 
  9. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为Thiele, 1924的参考文献提供内容
  10. ^ Search for Moelleria. National Center for Biotechnology Information. [2010-04-19]. 
  11. ^ WoRMS. Yaronia Mienis, 2011. World Register of Marine Species. [2018-03-13]. 
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Gofas, S. Turbininae. World Register of Marine Species. [2018-03-13]. 
  13. ^ Alf, A.; Kreipl, K. The family Turbinidae. Subfamilies Turbininae Rafinesque, 1815 and Prisogasterinae Hickman & McLean, 1990. (编) G.T. Poppe; K. Groh. A Conchological Iconography. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. 2011: pp. 1–82, pls 104–245 (英语). 
  • Marshall, B.A. 1988. Skeneidae, Vitrinellidae and Orbitestellidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) associated with biogenic substrata from bathyal depths off New Zealand and New South Wales. Journal of Natural History 22(4): 949-1004.
  • Vaught, K.C. (1989). A classification of the living Mollusca. American Malacologists: Melbourne, FL (USA). ISBN 0-915826-22-4. XII, 195 pp.
  • Williams, Suzanne T.; Karube, S.; Ozawa, T. Molecular systematics of Vetigastropoda: Trochidae, Turbinidae and Trochoidea redefined. Zoologica Scripta. 2008, 37: 483–506 (英语). 

外部連結[编辑]