蠓科

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蠓科
Ceratopogonidae
Culicoides sonorensis,一隻雌性的蠓
Culicoides sonorensis,一隻雌性的蠓
科學分類
界: 動物界 Animalia
門: 節肢動物門 Arthropoda
綱: 昆蟲綱 Insecta
目: 雙翅目 Diptera
亞目: 長角亞目 Nematocera
下目: 蚊下目 Culicomorpha
總科: 搖蚊總科 Chironomoidea
科: 蠓科 Ceratopogonidae
亞科

見內文

蠓科(學名:Ceratopogonidae),又名糠蚊沙蚊(主要在澳大利亞北領地使用[1]),是蚊下目之下的一個科。本科物種體形細小,身長一般在1–4 mm之間。與同屬搖蚊總科(Chironomoidea)的山蚋科(Thaumaleidae)、蚋科(Simulidae)及搖蚊科(Chironomidae)等物種關係密切。

Atrichopogon sp. on Oedemera virescens

他們在世界各地幾乎任何水棲半水棲及在山區找到牠們的棲息地。幾乎所有物種的雌蟲均會以某種動物為宿主來吸血庫蠓屬Culicoides)、蠛蠓屬Forcipomyia細蠓Leptoconops)主要吸有脊椎動物的血。有些Atrichopogon及蠛蠓屬物種是其他較大型的昆蟲的外寄生蟲ectoparasite)。 毛蠓屬Dasyhelea)幾乎只吃花蜜。其他屬的物種則捕食較小型的昆蟲。 蠓科物種的若蟲總可在一些潮濕的地方發現的,例如:在樹皮底下、在腐爛的木頭裡、堆肥裡、泥裡、小溪旁、樹洞內或保水植物內(例如:phytotelmata)。

Ceratopogonid male
Leptoconops
Biting midge or "punky" on a flower
While this Sphodromantis eats a bee, a ceratopogonid midge, sitting on the joint between the femur and tibia of the right-hand foreleg, fills its abdomen with the green mantis blood.

Many of the hematophagic (blood-eating) species are pests in beach or mountain habitats. Some other species are important pollinators of tropical crops such as cacao. The blood-sucking species may be vectors of disease-causing viruses, protozoa, or filarial worms. The bite of midges in the genus Culicoides causes an allergic response in equines known as sweet itch. In humans, their bites can cause intensely itchy, red welts that can persist for more than a week. The discomfort arises from a localized allergic reaction to the proteins in their saliva, which can be somewhat alleviated by topical antihistamines.

The smaller members of the family are tiny enough to pass through the apertures in typical window screens. Camping tents are often equipped with extra-fine mesh netting, called no-see-um nets, to keep the pests out.

They are known to spread Tete virus.

分類[编辑]

蠓科物種大致可以分類為四個亞科[2]

常見物種[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  • Blanton, F.S. and W.W. Wirth. 1979. The sand flies (Culicoides) of Florida (Ceratopogonidae). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas Volume 10. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
  • Borkent, A. and W.W. Wirth. 1997. World species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 233: 1–257.
  • Clastrier, J. and W.W. Wirth. 1978. The Leptoconops kerteszi complex in North America (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin Number 1573.
  • Downes, J.A. and W.W. Wirth. 1981. Chapter 28: Ceratopogonidae. Pp. 393–421. In: McAlpine, J.F., B.V. Peterson, G.E. Shewell, H.J. Teskey, J.R. Vockeroth, and D.M. Wood. Manual of Nearctic Diptera, Volume 1. Agriculture Canada Monograph 27.
  • Hendry, George. Midges in Scotland 4th Edition, Mercat Press, Edinburgh, 2003 ISBN 1-84183-062-3
  • Mullen, G.R. and L.J. Hribar. 1988. Biology and feeding behavior of ceratopogonid larvae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in North America. Bulletin of the Society for Vector Ecology 13: 60–81.
  • Wirth, W.W. and F.S. Blanton. 1974. The West Indian sandflies of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin Number 1474.
  • Wirth, W.W. and W.L. Grogan, Jr. 1988. The Predaceous Midges of the World (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae; Tribe Ceratopogonini). Flora and Fauna Handbook Number 4. E.J. Brill Publishers, Leiden. xv + 160 pp.
  • Wirth, W.W., N.C. Ratanaworabhan, and D.H. Messersmith. 1977. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XXII. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). 1. Introduction and key to genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 90(3): 615–647.
  1. ^ Biting Midges or “Sandflies” in the NT (PDF). The Northern Territory Disease Conrtol Bulletin. 2003-09, 10 (3). (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2016-03-04) (英语). |publisher=Northern Territory Government Department of Health and Community Services |first=Peter |last=Whelan |pages=12 }}
  2. ^ 虞以新 (编). 中国蠓科昆虫名录及其检索表. 军医医学科学出版社. 005-09 [2016-05-08] (中文(简体)‎). 

外部連結[编辑]

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