^Encyclopædia Britannica, "Greeks, Romans, and barbarians (from Europe, history of)": "Fusions of power occurred in the shape of leagues of cities, such as the Peloponnesian League, the Delian League, and the Boeotian League. The efficacy of these leagues depended chiefly upon the hegemony of a leading city (Sparta, Athens, or Thebes)"
^Encyclopædia Britannica, "Ch'i": "As a result, Ch'i began to dominate most of China proper; in 651 BC it formed the little states of the area into a league, which was successful in staving off invasions from the semibarbarian regimes to the north and south. Although Ch'i thus gained hegemony over China, its rule was short-lived; after Duke Huan's death, internal disorders caused it to lose the leadership of the new confederation"
Joseph, Jonathan, Hegemony: A Realist Analysis, New York: Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0-415-26836-2
Slack, Jennifer Daryl, The Theory and Method of Articulation in Cultural Studies, Morley, David; Chen, Kuan-Hsing (编), Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies, London: Routledge: 112–127, 1996
Giddens, A & Duneier, M. (2008). Essentials of Sociology. 2nd ed. Fifth Avenue, NY: Norton.
Hopper, P. (2007). Understanding Cultural Globalization. 1st ed. Malden, MA: Polity Press.