马兜铃属

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马兜铃属
科學分類
界: 植物界 Plantae
(未分级) 被子植物門 Magnoliophyta
(未分级) 雙子葉植物綱 Magnoliopsida
目: 胡椒目 Piperales
科: 馬兜鈴科 Aristolochiaceae
亞科: 馬兜鈴亚科 Aristolochioideae
屬: 马兜铃属 Aristolochia
L.[1]
異名
  • Hocquartia Dum.
  • Isotrema Raf. (disputed)

马兜铃属学名Aristolochia)是马兜铃科下的一种草质木质藤本稀亚灌木小乔木,常具有块状根[2]左右对称,腋生、单生或成束或排成短的总状花序花被管状、弯曲,上部成一舌片或3浅裂;一般有6个雄蕊环绕花柱排列,且与花柱结合;子房下位有6个室;果实蒴果[3] 马兜铃属约有500种。

分佈及特性[编辑]

主要分布于热带温带地区。其中囊花马兜铃等物种存在灭绝危险。马兜铃属植物中含有因物种、植物部位、植物生长的地理位置而含量不同的马兜铃酸马兜铃内酰胺(aristololactams)、马兜铃喹啉(aristoquinolines)、马兜铃精(aristogins)以及数量不等的倍半萜类化学物质[4]

中醫使用[编辑]

中医认为马兜铃属下的马兜铃A. debilis)、北马兜铃A. contorta)、木通马兜铃A. manshuriensis)以及防己马兜铃A. fangchi)等皆可入,药用的不同植物部分有着不同的中文名称:[5]

入药植物器官 中文名称
马兜铃 青木香
马兜铃 天仙藤
马兜铃 果实 马兜铃
北马兜铃 天仙藤
北马兜铃 果实 马兜铃
木通马兜铃 关木通
防己马兜铃 广防己

腎毒性[编辑]

有研究认为上述中草药中所含马兜铃酸具有消炎抗菌作用并具有一定抗癌活性,但同时具有肾毒性會引起泌尿道上皮癌為每百萬核鹼基(nucleobase/base)就有150個核鹼基基因突變,馬兜鈴酸基因突變能力強度是現今已知最強的致癌物質。[6][7][8] 由服用这类草药导致的疾病在早期被称为“中草药肾病”(Chinese herbs nephropathy,CHN),后来改称“马兜铃酸肾病”(aristolochic acid nephropathy,AAN)。[9]另有研究表明,马兜铃酸经人体代谢将成为一种具有遗传毒性突变原,并可引发癌症[10]美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)在2001年向美国市民发出有关警报。[11]欧洲各国及美国已颁布禁令,禁止进口及出售含有马兜铃酸的草药。[12]

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ Genus: Aristolochia L.. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-01-30 [2011-01-08]. 
  2. ^ 《中国植物志》第24卷:马兜铃属(Aristolochia L.. 中国植物物种信息数据库(DCP). 
  3. ^ 中国种子植物科属词典. 中国数字植物标本馆. 
  4. ^ Shi LS, Kuo PC, Tsai YL, Damu AG, Wu TS. The alkaloids and other constituents from the root and stem of Aristolochia elegans.. Bioorg Med Chem. Jan 15, 2004, 12 (2): 439–446. PMID 14723962 (英语). 
  5. ^ 中华人民共和国卫生部. 中华人民共和国药典(第一部). 北京: 化学工业出版社. 2000: 31, 39, 41, 114, 154. 
  6. ^ Poon et al. and Hoang et al.,"Genome-Wide Mutational Signatures of Aristolochic Acid and Its Application as a Screening Tool"[1],Sci TM,August 7, 2013; 5(197).
  7. ^ 記者陳麗婷/台北報導,"致癌馬兜鈴酸 老鼠吃3天就傷害久遠"[2],聯合晚報,2013.08.08-03:10 pm.
  8. ^ C.P. Khare (编). Indian Herbal Remedies: Rational Western Therapy, Ayurvedic and Other Traditional Usage, Botany 1. Springer. Jan 22, 2004. ISBN 978-3540010265. 
  9. ^ Cosyns JP. Aristolochic acid and 'Chinese herbs nephropathy': a review of the evidence to date.. Drug Saf. 2003, 26 (1): 33–48. doi:10.2165/00002018-200326010-00004. PMID 12495362 (英语). 
  10. ^ Arlt VM, Stiborova M, Schmeiser HH. Aristolochic acid as a probable human cancer hazard in herbal remedies: a review (PDF). Mutagenesis. 2002, 17 (4): 265–277. doi:10.1093/mutage/17.4.265 (英语). 
  11. ^ Aristolochic Acid: FDA Warns Consumers to Discontinue Use of Botanical Products that Contain Aristolochic Acid. Apr 11, 2001. 
  12. ^ U.S. Adds 8 Chemicals -- Some Common -- to Carcinogen List: New Carcinogens. Cancer Health Center. 

参考文献[编辑]

  • American Cancer Society (ACS (2006): Known and Probable Carcinogens (Including Industrial Processes, Occupational Exposures, Infectious Agents, Chemicals, and Radiation). Version of 02/03/2006. Retrieved 2007-NOV-12.
  • Depierreux, M; Van Damme, B; Vanden Houte K; & Vanherweghem, JL. Pathologic aspects of a newly described nephropathy related to the prolonged use of Chinese herbs. American Journal of Kidney Disease. August 1994, 24 (2): 172–180. PMID 8048421. 
  • Grollman, Arthur P.; Shibutani, Shinya; Moriya, Masaaki; Miller, Frederick; Wu, Lin; Moll, Ute; Suzuki, Naomi; Fernandes, Andrea; Rosenquist, Thomas; Medverec, Zvonimir; Jakovina, Krunoslav; Brdar, Branko; Slade, Neda; Turesky; Robert J.; Goodenough, Angela K.; Rieger, Robert; Vukelić, Mato & Jelaković, Bojan (2007): Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. PNAS 104(20): 12129-12134. doi:10.1073/pnas.0701248104 PMID 17620607 PDf fulltext Supporting information
  • Heinrich, M., J. Chan, S. Wanke, Ch. Neinhuis and M.S.S. Simmonds 2009 Local Uses of Aristolochia species and content of Aristolochic Acid 1 and 2 – a global assessment based on bibliographic sources. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 125: 108 – 144.
  • Stiborova, M; Frei, E; Breuer, A;, Bieler, CA & Schmeiser, HH. Aristolactam I a metabolite of aristolochic acid I upon activation forms an adduct found in DNA of patients with Chinese herbs nephropathy. Experimental Toxicological Pathology. July 1999, 51 (4-5): 421–427. 
  • Vandaveer, Chelsie (2002): How did the shape of a flower cause the death of women?. Version of 2002-JAN-10. Retrieved 2007-NOV-12.
  • Vanherweghem, JL; Depierreux, M; Tielemans, C; Abramowicz, D; Dratwa, M; Jadoul, M; Richard, C; Vandervelde, D; Verbeelen D, & Vanhaelen-Fastre, R. Rapidly progressive interstitial renal fibrosis in young women: association with slimming regimen including Chinese herbs. The Lancet. 1993-02-13, 341 (8842): 387–391. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(93)92984-2. PMID 8094166.