星月

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常见的星月图形

星月是指星星与新月结合在一起的一种基本图形,自古代时就有使用,这一标志起源于地中海东岸以及中亚地区[1]。星月标志是突厥人引入的伊斯兰艺术中的,最早见于十四世纪奥斯曼帝国苏丹奥尔汗时期的步兵军旗上。

在19世纪时,这一图案被绘制在奥斯曼土耳其国旗上,也因此成为了奥斯曼帝国的象征。这一图案随后被土耳其共和国所继用,在帝国前领土上的新国家也有使用这一图案的,如利比亚(1951年)、突尼斯(1956年)以及阿尔及利亚(1958年)。这一图案也出现在其他一些国家的国旗上,如阿塞拜疆(1918)。在1950年代,星月开始逐渐变为伊斯兰和穆斯林社区的象征[2],并出现在伊斯兰国家的国旗上,如巴基斯坦(1947年)、马来西亚(1948年)、毛里塔尼亚(1959年)等等。1970年代,这一图案已经被伊斯兰主义者和阿拉伯国家所接受,出现在美国的伊斯兰民族组织会旗上,甚至成为了阿拉伯民族主义的象征出现在1974年所设想的阿拉伯伊斯兰共和国国旗上。

Unicode编码中,星月标志的代码为U+262A:

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ In the Near East and Eastern Mediterranean, see for example the 'Ur-Nammu stela' of ca. 2100-2200 BCE: "Over the king's head, at the top of the stela, is a very large star or radiant sun-disc, floating free within a crescent." Jeanny Vorys Canby, The "Ur-Nammu" Stela, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology, 2006, p18; In Central Asia and India see, for example, a coin issue of Chashtana (probably dating to the late first or early second century AD): "A rare type with crescent and star alone on the reverse is probably Chashtana's earliest issue, struck before he extended his power into Malwa." H.H. Dodwell (Ed.), The Cambridge Shorter History of India, Cambridge University Press, 1935, p83; early Mesopotamian and, much later, Sassanian examples of the 'star and crescent' motif are of course well known.
  2. ^ The symbolism of the star and crescent in the flag of the Kingdom of Libya (1951-1969) was explained in an English language booklet, The Libyan Flag & The National Anthem, issued by the Ministry of Information and Guidance of the Kingdom of Libya (year unknown, cited after Jos Poels at FOTW, 1997) as follows: "The crescent is symbolic of the beginning of the lunar month according to the moslem calendar. It brings back to our minds the story of Hijra (migration) of our prophet Mohammed from his home in order to spread Islam and teach the principles of right and virtue. The Star represents our smiling hope, the beauty of aim and object and the light of our belief in God, in our country, its dignity and honour which illuminate our way and puts an end to darkness."