鼠尾草属

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鼠尾草属
一串红 (Salvia splendens)
一串红Salvia splendens
科學分類
域: 真核域 Eukarya
界: 植物界 Plantae
門: 被子植物門 Magnoliophyta
綱: 雙子葉植物綱 Magnoliopsida
目: 唇形目 Lamiales
科: 唇形科 Lamiaceae
屬: 鼠尾草属 Salvia
L.

参见正文

鼠尾草属唇形科下最大的一个,包括大约700-900植物,广泛分布在全球各地的温带热带地区,既有草本也有灌木或亚灌木,大多数品种集中在亚洲[1] 其中有许多品种可以入药或作为观赏花卉[2]

鼠尾草属植物有明显特点,其花萼钟形,分为两唇,上唇有三齿,下唇有二齿;花冠筒形,也分为两唇,上唇完整,下唇有三裂,中裂最长;有两个能育雄蕊和两个退化的不育雄蕊;果实为小坚果

该属植物杠杆状雄蕊(lever-like stamen)结构与传粉者形成了杠杆式背部传粉(dorsal pollination)的互作机制[3]

主要品种[编辑]

  • 白鼠尾草 Salvia apiana
  • Salvia argentea - Silver clary, Silver sage.
  • Salvia arizonica - Arizona sage, Desert indigo sage, a purple-flowering annual.
  • Salvia austriaca - Austrian sage.
  • Salvia azurea - Blue sage, Azure blue sage; very big bright blue flowers.
  • Salvia candelabrum - a blue-flowering scented sage.
  • Salvia clevelandii - Blue sage, Cleveland sage, Fragrant sage.
  • 朱唇红花鼠尾草Salvia coccinea
  • 飞鸽鼠尾草 Salvia columbariae
  • 圆苞鼠尾草 (Salvia cyclostegia)
  • Salvia discolor
  • Salvia divinorum - Diviner's sage.
  • Salvia dorrii - Ute Tobacco Sage (mild hallucinogen when smoked)
  • 凤梨鼠尾草 Salvia elegans
  • 蓝花鼠尾草 Salvia farinacea - Mealycup sage, annual in temperate climates will survive mild winters
  • Salvia fulgens - Cardinal sage, Mexican red sage, a red-flowering perennial
  • Salvia funerea – Death Valley sage
  • Salvia glutinosa
  • Salvia greggii - Autumn sage, a red-flowered sage with a very strong scent
  • Salvia guaranitica - Anise sage or hummingbird sage.
  • 芡欧鼠尾草 Salvia hispanica - the Chia of commerce.
  • 鼠尾草 Salvia japonica
  • Salvia leucantha - Mexican bush sage, velvety spikes of violet-purple and white, 3' tall.
  • Salvia leucophylla - Purple sage.
  • Salvia libanotica - Mediterranean or middle eastern sage
  • Salvia longistyla - Mexican sage.
  • Salvia lyrata - Lyre-leaved sage, Lyreleaf sage.
  • Salvia nemorosa - Meadow sage
  • Salvia mexicana - Mexican sage, medium blue to violet and lavender, 8' to 10' tall.
  • Salvia microphylla
  • 丹参 Salvia miltiorrhiza
  • 藥用鼠尾草 Salvia officinalis
  • Salvia patens - a blue-flowering sage.
  • Salvia polystachya - Chia sage, Chia seed.
  • Salvia potus - Chia.
  • Salvia pratensis - Meadow clary or Meadow sage.
  • Salvia roemeriana - Cedar Sage; this species prefers shady moist areas
  • Salvia sclarea - Clary or Clary sage.
  • Salvia spathacea - Pitcher sage or Hummingbird sage.
  • 一串红 Salvia splendens
  • Salvia superba
  • Salvia transylvanica
  • Salvia uliginosa
  • Salvia verbenaca - Wild clary, Wild sage.
  • Salvia verticillata - Whorled clary, Lilac sage, a white- or blue-flowering perennial with the scent of Clary.
  • Salvia viridis (syn. S. horminum) - Annual clary..

应用[编辑]

鼠尾草属的拉丁名称来源与拉丁语的“治疗”(salvare)一词,在古代的地中海小亚细亚半岛早已经应用其作为草药。[4]丹参Salvia miltiorrhiza)都是重要的中药美洲印第安人也早已经知道用鼠尾草属植物作为草药,部分芳香品种还可以提取芳香油。[5][6][7][8]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Kintzios, Spiridon E. 2000. Sage: the genus Salvia. Medicinal and aromatic plants--industrial profiles, v. 14. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers. Page 27. ISBN 90-5823-005-8
  2. ^ Clebsch, Betsy, and Betsy Clebsch. 2003. The new book of salvias: sages for every garden. Portland, OR: Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-560-8
  3. ^ 鼠尾草花结构与传粉忠实性研究获进展. 科学网. 2011-3-16 [2011-03-16]. 
  4. ^ Marushia, Robin, Salvia divinorum: The Botany, Ethnobotany, Biochemistry and Future of a Mexican Mint, Ethnobotany. June 2003 [2007-05-04] 
  5. ^ Akhondzadeh, S; Noroozian, M; Mohammadi, M; Ohadinia, S; Jamshidi, Ah; Khani, M. Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2003.Feb, 28 (1): 53–9. ISSN 0269-4727. PMID 12605619. 
  6. ^ Dos, Santos-Neto, Ll; De, Vilhena, Toledo, Ma; Medeiros-Souza, P; De, Souza, Ga. The use of herbal medicine in Alzheimer's disease-a systematic review (Free full text). Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2006.Dec, 3 (4): 441–5. doi:10.1093/ecam/nel071. PMC 1697739. PMID 17173107. 
  7. ^ Perry, Ek; Pickering, At; Wang, Ww; Houghton, P; Perry, Ns. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: Integrating ethnobotanical and contemporary scientific evidence. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.). 1998.Winter, 4 (4): 419–28. ISSN 1075-5535. PMID 9884179. 
  8. ^ Iuvone, T; De, Filippis, D; Esposito, G; D'Amico, A; Izzo, Aa. The spice sage and its active ingredient rosmarinic acid protect PC12 cells from amyloid-beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity (Free full text). The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2006.Jun, 317 (3): 1143–9. doi:10.1124/jpet.105.099317. PMID 16495207. 
  • A Book of Salvias: Sages for Every Garden by Betsy Clebsch, Timber Press, 1997, ISBN 0-88192-369-9. An excellent reference on salvias. Also, an updated (2004 edition) is available.
  • Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M. R. 2003, Salvia Officinalis extract in the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: A double blind and placebo-controlled trial. British Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 140, p22P-22P, 1/2p

外部链接[编辑]

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