唐冠螺科

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唐冠螺科
Semicassis pyrum (top).JPG
Lateral view of a shell of Semicassis pyrum
科学分类 编辑
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 軟體動物門 Mollusca
纲: 腹足纲 Gastropoda
演化支: 新进腹足类 Caenogastropoda
目: 玉黍螺類 Littorinimorpha
总科: 鶉螺總科 Tonnoidea
科: 唐冠螺科 Cassidae

見內文

唐冠螺科(學名:Cassidae[1]:171,亦作冠螺科,是一個腹足綱軟體動物,其物種為中型到大型、甚至很大型的海螺[2]。舊屬中腹足目異腹足目,今屬玉黍螺類支序鶉螺總科[2][3]

本科現時有約60個物種,例如:万宝螺Cypraecassis rufa)。

命名[编辑]

若按唐冠螺屬的學名來命名,本科的學名應作「Cassididae」,但這樣就會跟另一種甲蟲分類龜金花蟲科 的學名Cassididae Stephens, 1831 (基於Cassida Linnaeus, 1758金花蟲科物種,但現時已降格成為龜金花蟲亞科)相衝。所以ICZN根據Opinion 1023 (1974, Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 31: 127-129),接受了現時的學名,以避免重覆命名的出現[2]

分佈[编辑]

本科物種分佈於熱帶海域及溫帶的潮間帶,水深可達100米。日間會埋在海底的沙裡,到晚上才出來活動。

型態特徵[编辑]

本物種螺殼手性均為右旋。體型通常很大。口蓋英语Operculum (gastropod)長圓形,薄而且有尖刺,能完全覆蓋其長長的殼口英语aperture (mollusc)水管溝直或微彎。殼口外唇較厚,內裡有齒。

解剖[编辑]

本科物種的外套膜很大,腹足大而且厚肉。頭部有可伸縮的長鼻,可協助捕食。眼睛在一對觸角的基部。

食性[编辑]

本科物種以棘皮動物(特別是海膽)為食:冠螺科物種的頭部有長長的口器,連接兩個大大的長鼻腺,可分泌出一種含豐富硫酸的分泌液[4]。冠螺會先用其腹足夾緊海膽,然後再分泌酸液在其外殼融解出一個洞,再從這個洞伸進齒舌去刮食海膽的肉[4]

分類[编辑]

布歇特和洛克羅伊的腹足類分類 (2005年),作者依從Riedel (1995),唐冠螺科仍然被列作鶉螺科Tonnidae Suter, 1913 (1825))之下的一個亞科(Cassinae Latreille, 1825)[3][5],直到Beu (2008)在他的著作《Revision of the deep-water Cassidae》才將本分類提升到科級層次[6][7]

[编辑]

本科包括下列各屬:

異名[编辑]

以下各屬被認為是異名

  • Bathygalea Woodring & Olsson, 1957: synonym of Echinophoria Sacco, 1890
  • Benthodolium Verrill & Smith [in Verrill], 1884: synonym of Oocorys P. Fischer, 1884
  • Bezoardica Schumacher, 1817: synonym of Phalium Link, 1807
  • Bezoardicella Habe, 1961: synonym of Phalium Link, 1807
  • Cassidaria Lamarck, 1816: synonym of Galeodea Link, 1807
  • Cassidea Bruguière, 1789: synonym of Cassis Scopoli, 1777
  • Echinora Schumacher, 1817: synonym of Galeodea Link, 1807
  • Euspinacassis Finlay, 1926: synonym of Echinophoria Sacco, 1890
  • Galeoocorys Kuroda & Habe, 1957: synonym of Galeodea Link, 1807
  • Hadroocorys Quinn, 1980: synonym of Oocorys P. Fischer, 1884
  • Morio Montfort, 1810: synonym of Galeodea Link, 1807
  • Taieria Finlay & Marwick, 1937: synonym of Galeodea Link, 1807
  • Trachydolium Howe, 1926: synonym of Echinophoria Sacco, 1890
  • Xenogalea Iredale, 1927: synonym of Semicassis Mörch, 1852
  • Xenophalium Iredale, 1927: synonym of Semicassis Mörch, 1852

人類使用[编辑]

Some helmet shells are carved into cameos, starting in Italy in 1820.

  • The king helmet Cassis tuberosa was the first species to be made into cameos.
  • The black helmet Cassis madagascariensis, also known as Cassis cameo, has a dark brown or a claret-coloured shell layer under a yellowish outer layer. This gives it an onyx appearance and makes it one of the most useful shells for cameos.
  • The red helmet Cypraecassis rufa gives a sardonyx-like appearance because it has sard-coloured bands under its pale outer coating.
  • The horned helmet Cassis cornuta produces a white figure on an orange background. It is also used as a trumpet by native Filipinos.

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ 賴景陽. 台灣貝類圖鑑. 貓頭鷹出版社. 2005-10. ISBN 986-7415-58-2 (中文(繁體)‎). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Gofas, S. Cassidae. World Register of Marine Species. 2010 [2011-01-19]. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Frýda, J.; Hausdorf, B.; Ponder, W.; Valdés, Á.; Warén, A. Bouchet P.; Rocroi J.-P., 编. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology (Hackenheim, Germany / Ann Arbor, USA: ConchBooks). 2005, 47 (1-2): 397 pp. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Hughes, RN; Hughes, HPI. Morphological and Behavioural Aspects of Feeding in the Cassidae (Tonnacea, Mesogastropoda). Malacologia. 1981, 20 (2): 385–402 [2017-08-13]. (原始内容存档于2012-08-29). 
  5. ^ Riedel, F. An outline of Cassoidean phylogeny (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Contributions to Tertiary and Quaternary Geology. 1995, 32 (4): 97–132 (英语). 
  6. ^ Beu, A.G. Recent Deep-water Cassidae of the World. A revision of Galeodea, Oocorys, Sconsia, Echinophoria and related taxa, with new genera and species (Mollusca, Gastropoda. (编) Héros, V.; Cowie, R.H.; Bouchet, P. Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle 25. 2008: 269–387. 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Dance, S. Peter. 世界貝殼圖鑑 2nd. 2008. 
  • Abbott, R.T. (1968). The Helmet Shells of the World (Cassidae) Part 1. Indo-Pacific Mollusca 2(9): 7-201
  • Kreipl K. 1997. Recent Cassidae. Christa Hemmen, Wiesbaden, 151 p

外部連結[编辑]

維基共享資源中有關唐冠螺科的多媒體資源