本页使用了标题或全文手工转换

卡爾·馬藍提斯

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索
卡爾·馬藍提斯
Karl A. Marlantes
Head shot of Mr Marlantes wearing jacket and necktie. There is some greying of the temples, and he seems unshaven.
馬藍提斯出席2010年德州書節(Texas Book Festival
出生 1944年12月24日1944-12-24(70歲)
奧勒岡州阿斯托利亞英语Astoria, Oregon
居住地 華盛頓州伍丁維爾
家乡 奧勒岡州濱海英语Seaside, Oregon
民族 希臘裔芬蘭裔英语Finnish American挪威裔英语Norwegian American[1]
国籍  美國
母校 耶魯大學經濟學士(1967年)
牛津大學學院碩士
职业 國際企業顧問
配偶 吉賽爾(Giselle,離婚)
安妮(Anne[2],二任)
子女 5位
军事生涯
军种 美國海軍陸戰隊
服役年份 1968年-1970年
軍銜 中尉
軍籍號碼英语Service number 0-103269
部隊 第3陸戰師英语3rd Marine Division (United States)第4團英语4th Marine Regiment (United States)1營C連英语1st Battalion 4th Marines
參與战争 越南戰爭
獲得勳章 Navycross.png 海軍十字勳章
备注

卡爾·馬藍提斯英语Karl Marlantes,1944年12月24日)是一位美國作家企業家,畢業於耶魯大學,並取得牛津大學羅德學者資格。越南戰爭時期曾為美國海軍陸戰隊尉官,並因為率領部隊戰鬥而獲得美國海軍部頒發的最高等級勳章——海軍十字勳章。他的處女作、虛構戰爭小說《馬特洪峰英语Matterhorn: A Novel of the Vietnam War》於2010年出版後曾榮登《紐約時報》暢銷書排行榜前10名[6]

生平[编辑]

馬藍提斯於奧勒岡州的伐木小鎮——濱海英语Seaside, Oregon長大[7],就讀於其父親擔任校長濱海高中英语Seaside High School (Oregon)(1963年畢業班)時,當過美式足球隊員和學生會主席[8],之後贏得了美国优秀学生奖学金英语National Merit Scholarship並進入耶魯大學喬納森·愛德華茲學院[9],成為校內兄弟會Beta Theta Pi的會員[10]、在橄欖球校隊中擔任邊鋒[11],並贏得英國牛津大學大學學院羅德獎學金[12][13][14][15]

就讀了一個學期後,馬藍提斯志願加入美國海軍陸戰隊現役部隊,並以少尉的身分隨軍遠赴越南參戰,並升為中尉[16]。戰鬥役期結束後被調回美國,至陸戰隊司令部英语Headquarters Marine Corps繼續服役一年。他在陸戰隊生涯中獲得的勳章包括了海軍十字勳章銅星勳章、兩枚海軍嘉獎勳章英语Commendation Medal、兩枚紫心勳章和10枚航空獎章英语Air Medal[17]。退伍之後回到牛津攻讀碩士學位,出社會後赴印度、英國、新加坡法國等地擔任國際企業顧問[18]

馬藍提斯花費了30年的時間,使自己的第一部小說《馬特洪峰》成形。出版之後曾被《紐約時報書評》(The New York Times Book Review)作為封面報導主題[19],並躋身於《紐約時報》暢銷書排行榜達16週之久[20],該報記者賽巴斯欽·鍾格英语Sebastian Junger亦稱《馬特洪峰》一書為「最深切且最強而有力的越戰題材小說之一」[21]。2011年時,此書也得到了華盛頓州書獎英语Washington State Book Award的小說類獎[22]。同樣在該年,馬藍提斯也出版了一本紀實類書籍《What It Is Like to Go to War》(直譯:參戰的感覺),敘述回歸平民世界後的現代退伍軍人生活[23],美國媒體人比爾·莫耶斯英语Bill Moyers在2012年7月時採訪了馬藍提斯,順道為《參戰的感覺》一書作宣傳[24]

獲獎[编辑]

文學獎項[编辑]

海軍十字勳章褒揚令[编辑]

馬藍提斯在越南服役時,因為有次率領上部下攻擊一座被越南人民軍(北越軍)佔領、並擁有碉堡設施的山頭,而被授予海軍十字勳章[26],以下為表揚狀的內容[27][註 1]

美利堅合眾國總統因海軍陸戰隊預備役中尉卡爾·A·馬藍提斯(服役編號:0-103269)於艦隊陸戰隊英语Fleet Marine Force第三加強師英语3rd Marine Division (United States)第四團第一營英语1st Battalion 4th Marines擔任C連副連長期間,在越南共和國抗敵行動中的超凡英勇之舉,而欣然授予其海軍十字勳章。1969年3月1日至6日間,C連參與了一場在岩堆山英语The Rockpile[註 2]之北實施的戰鬥行動,遭遇北越軍迫擊砲火箭推進榴彈輕兵器自動步槍攻擊而死傷慘重。馬藍提斯中尉在盡守本分的同時,亦有技巧地組織並重新集結了兩個排所倖存的弟兄,並在3月6日對一座築有戒備森嚴的堡壘、並被敵軍控制的山頭展開攻擊行動。在馬藍提斯中尉的強力帶領下,部隊得以搶在北越軍被驚動、能夠發起頑強抵抗之前,就獲得了攻上山頭、穿越重重敵砲的氣勢與衝勁。最初敵軍能短暫地憑藉強勢火力壓制我軍,而馬藍提斯中尉奮然不顧自身安危,衝過敵火掃射範圍以成功奇襲四座碉堡、徹底予以破壞。儘管在交火中嚴重受傷,但他拒絕醫療照護、繼續領導弟兄直到目標拿下、防線建立、其他傷員都得到醫療後送為止。之後,因為知悉連上有作戰經驗之軍官及士官非死即傷,因此又拒絕讓自己送往後方。所有聽命於他的戰友均被其英雄行動及堅定決心所激勵,並且在打擊北越軍、同時令友軍付出最小之傷亡之關鍵行動中做出了貢獻。馬藍提斯中尉以其勇敢、進取的戰鬥精神及堅定不移的恪守職責,實踐了陸戰隊及美國海軍部隊的最高傳統。
一般命令:部門:美國海軍部授勳委員會
行動日:1969年3月1日至6日
軍種:海軍陸戰隊(預備役)
軍階:中尉
連:C連
營:第1營
團:第4陸戰團
師:艦隊陸戰隊,第3陸戰加強師

作品[编辑]

注釋及參考文獻[编辑]

注釋[编辑]

  1. ^ 原文如下:
    The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Cross to First Lieutenant Karl A. Marlantes (MCSN: 0-103269), United States Marine Corps (Reserve), for extraordinary heroism while serving as Executive Officer of Company C, First Battalion, Fourth Marines, THIRD Marine Division (Reinforced), Fleet Marine Force, in connection with operations against the enemy in the Republic of Vietnam. During the period 1 to 6 March 1969, Company C was engaged in a combat operation north of the Rockpile and sustained numerous casualties from North Vietnamese Army mortars, rocket-propelled grenades, small arms, and automatic weapons fire. While continuing to function effectively in his primary billet, First Lieutenant Marlantes skillfully combined and reorganized the remaining members of two platoons, and on 6 March initiated an aggressive assault up a hill, the top of which was controlled by a hostile unit occupying well-fortified bunkers. Under First Lieutenant Marlantes' dynamic leadership, the attack gained momentum which carried it up the slope and through several enemy emplacements before the surprised North Vietnamese force was able to muster determined resistance. Delivering a heavy volume of fire, the enemy temporarily pinned down the friendly unit. First Lieutenant Marlantes, completely disregarding his own safety, charged across the fire-swept terrain to storm four bunkers in succession, completely destroying them. While thus engaged, he was seriously wounded, but steadfastly refusing medical attention, continued to lead his men until the objective was secured, a perimeter defense established, and all other casualties medically evacuated. Then, aware that all experienced officers and noncommissioned officers had become casualties, he resolutely refused medical evacuation for himself. His heroic actions and resolute determination inspired all who observed him and were instrumental in a decisive rout of the North Vietnamese Army force with minimal friendly casualties. By his courage, aggressive fighting spirit, and unwavering devotion to duty in the face of grave personal danger, First Lieutenant Marlantes upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the United States Naval Service.
    General Orders: Authority: Navy Department Board of Decorations and Medals
    Action Date: March 1–6, 1969
    Service: Marine Corps Reserve
    Rank: First Lieutenant
    Company: Company C
    Battalion: 1st Battalion
    Regiment: 4th Marines
    Division: 3d Marine Division (Rein.) FMF
  2. ^ 越南廣治省的一座山頭,臨近南北越停戰區英语Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone,越戰時期被美國陸軍、海軍陸戰隊作為觀查哨所和砲兵陣地

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Glenn, Tom. Author Q&A: Karl Marlantes. The Washington Independent Review of Books. September? 2011 [2012-12-29]. "My mother’s family came from Norway and Finland and my father’s family came from Greece" 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Blake, John. A war hero returns home, 40 years later. CNN. April 9, 2012 [2012-12-29]. 
  3. ^ Gordon, Gideon. ROTC's problem: student apathy. Yale Daily News英语Yale Daily News. LXXXV (140). May 13, 1964: (7) [2012-12-29]. 
  4. ^ Interview - Karl Marlantes, author of Matterhorn. 越南雜誌英语Vietnam Magazine. September 14, 2010 [2012-12-29]. 
  5. ^ Karl Marlantes (fee, via Fairfax County Public Library). Contemporary Authors Online. Detroit: Gale. 2012 [2012-12-30]. Gale Document Number: GALE|H1000197584.  Gale Biography In Context. (需訂閱)
  6. ^ Junger, Sebastian. The Vietnam Wars: ‘Matterhorn’. New York Times Book Review. April 1, 2010. 
  7. ^ Baker, Jeff. Seaside native Karl Marlantes follows up his celebrated novel 'Matterhorn'. The Oregonian. September 10, 2011 [29 December 2012]. 
  8. ^ Seaside Reunion 1965. Seaside, Oregon: Seaside HS class of 1965. October 2, 2010 [2012-12-30]. 
  9. ^ Six Fraternities Select Members. Yale Daily News. LXXXVI (24). October 15, 1964: (6) [2012-12-29]. 
  10. ^ Singer, George. Yale Charities Drive To Aid Local, International Projects. Yale Daily News. LXXXVIII (46). November 14, 1966: (1, 6) [2012-12-29]. 
  11. ^ Reilly, Mike. Ruggers close season against New York RC. Yale Daily News. May 11, 1967 [2012-12-29]. 
  12. ^ Yale Seniors Win Rhodes, NCAA Awards. Yale Daily News. LXXXVIII (86). January 4, 1967: (3) [2012-12-30]. 
  13. ^ Gwinn, Mary Ann. Northwest author Karl Marlantes took three decades to climb his own personal 'Matterhorn'. Seattle Times. March 21, 2010 [2012-12-30]. 
  14. ^ McSmith, Andy. In the shadow of Vietnam: A close encounter with Karl Marlantes, US marine turned literary giant. The Independent (London). August 12, 2010 [2012-12-30]. 
  15. ^ Marlantes, Karl. What it is like to go to war. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. 2011: 135 [2012-12-30]. ISBN 9780802119926. 
  16. ^ Kurutz, Steven. Karl Marlantes On His 30-Year Quest To Publish ‘Matterhorn’. The Wall Street Journal. May 31, 2010. 
  17. ^ Karl Marlantes: Books, Biography, Blog, Audiobooks, Kindle. Amazon.com. 
  18. ^ Laurel Marlantes - biography. [2012-12-29]. 
  19. ^ 《馬特洪峰》,描述越戰最撼動人心的戰爭經典,如《西線無戰事》之於第一次世界大戰。. TAAZE(讀冊生活). 
  20. ^ MRU BookStore - Matterhorn. MRU BookStore. 
  21. ^ Junger, Sebastian. The Vietnam Wars: ‘Matterhorn’. New York Times Book Review. April 1, 2010. 
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 Gwinn, Mary Ann. 2011 Washington State Book Awards winners. Seattle Times. September 15, 2011 [2012-12-29]. 
  23. ^ Samet, Elizabeth D. Coming to Terms With the Experience of Combat. New York Times Sunday Book Review. September 16, 2011 [2012-12-29]. 
  24. ^ Karl Marlantes on the Mindset of a Modern Warrior. Moyers & Company. July 27, 2012. 
  25. ^ Karl Marlantes. Chicago: Pritzker Military Library. October 20, 2011 [2012-12-30]. 
  26. ^ Marlantes, Karl. The Truth About Being A Hero; Karl Marlantes on what makes men heroes--in their own hearts and in the eyes of others. Wall Street Journal. August 20, 2011.  (excerpt from "What It Is Like to Go to War" by Karl Marlantes, to be published Aug. 30 by Atlantic Monthly Press.)
  27. ^ Valor awards for Karl A. Marlantes | Military Times Hall of Valor. Military Times. [2012-12-29]. 

外部連結[编辑]