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特林吉特語

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特林吉特語
Tlingit
Lingít
发音 /ɬɪŋkɪ́t/
母语国家和地区 美國加拿大
区域 阿拉斯加卑斯省育空華盛頓州
母语使用人数 845 (Krauss 1995)(日期不详)
語系
文字 拉丁字母 (特林吉特字母)
語言代碼
ISO 639-2 tli
ISO 639-3 tli

特林吉特語英語Tlingit language,发音为/ˈklɪŋkɪt/;特林吉特語:Lingít 宽式IPA/ɬɪŋkɪ́t/[1])是一種現時在美國阿拉斯加東南部及加拿大西部通行的語言,是納-德內語系的成員之一。特林吉特語是一種瀕危語言,現存在生的母語人口只餘下140人,當中大多數都是英語的雙語人。現時在阿拉斯加正努力保存特林吉特語的語言及文化。

特林吉特語的其中一個特色,是:它雖然有着豐富的邊音輔音(/tɬ, tɬʰ, tɬ’, ɬ, ɬ’/),但卻沒有最常見的/l/[2]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Maddieson, Ian; Smith, Caroline L.; & Bessell, Nicola. Aspects of the phonetics of Tlingit. Anthropological Linguistics. 2001, 43 (2): 135–176. 
  2. ^ 雖然[l]在某些較年長的語言人口中存在,但這個音其實是以/n/的同音位出現。不過,若我們把這個音當中是/l/音素的話,那麼,這些說話的人就會連鼻輔音也沒有。

延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • Beck, David. (2001). "Conventionality and lexical classes", pp. 19–26 in Proceedings of WSCLA 5: The Workshop on Structure and Constituency in Languages of the Americas, Gessner, Suzanne; Oh, Sunyoung; & Shiobara, Kayono (eds.). Volume 5 of Working Papers in Linguistics. University of British Columbia: Vancouver, British Columbia.
  • Bird, Sonya. (2001). "What is a word? Evidence from a computational approach to Navajo verbal morphology", pp. 27–35 in Proceedings of WSCLA 5: The Workshop on Structure and Constituency in Languages of the Americas, Gessner, Suzanne; Oh, Sunyoung; & Shiobara, Kayono (eds.). Volume 5 of Working Papers in Linguistics. University of British Columbia: Vancouver, British Columbia.
  • Boas, Franz. (1917). Grammatical notes on the language of the Tlingit Indians. University of Pennsylvania Museum anthropological publications.
  • Cable, Seth. (2004). A metrical analysis of syncope in Tlingit. Manuscript. [1]
  • Dauenhauer, Nora M.; & Dauenhauer, Richard (Eds.). (1987). Haa Shuká, Our Ancestors. Number 1 in Classics of Tlingit Oral Literature. University of Washington & Sealaska Heritage Foundation: Seattle, Washington.
  • ——— (1990). Haa Tuwunáagu Yís, For Healing Our Spirit. Number 2 in Classics of Tlingit Oral Literature. University of Washington & Sealaska Heritage Foundation: Seattle, Washington.
  • ——— (Eds.). (1994). Haa K̲usteeyí, Our Culture: Tlingit life stories. Number 3 in Classics of Tlingit Oral Literature. University of Washington & Sealaska Heritage Foundation: Seattle, Washington.
  • ——— (Eds.). (1995). "A Tlingit ceremonial speech by Willie Marks", pp. 239–244 in Dürr, M; Renner, E.; & Oleschinski, W. (Eds.), Language and Culture in Native North America: Studies in honor of Heinz-Jürgen Pinnow. Number 2 in LINCOM Studies in Native American Linguistics. LINCOM: Munich, Germany. ISBN 3-89586-004-2.
  • ——— (2000). Beginning Tlingit, 4th ed. Sealaska Heritage Foundation Press: Juneau, Alaska. ISBN 0-9679311-1-8. First edition 1994.
  • ——— (2002). Lingít X̲'éinax̲ Sá! Say it in Tlingit: A Tlingit phrase book. Sealaska Heritage Institute: Juneau, Alaska. ISBN 0-9679311-1-8.
  • ——— (2002). Intermediate Tlingit (draft). Manuscript.
  • Dauenhauer, Richard. (1974). Text and context of Tlingit oral tradition. PhD dissertation. University of Wisconsin: Madison, Wisconsin.
  • Dryer, Matthew. (1985). "Tlingit: An object-initial language?", Canadian Journal of Linguistics 30:1–13.
  • Goddard, Pliny Earle. (1920). "Has Tlingit a genetic relationship to Athapascan", International Journal of American Linguistics 1:266–279.
  • Leer, Jeffery A. (1979). Proto-Athabaskan Verb Stem Variation, Part One: Phonology. Volume 1 in Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers. Alaska Native Language Center: Fairbanks, Alaska.
  • ——— (1990). Tlingit: A portmanteau language family? In P. Baldi (Ed.), Linguistics change and reconstruction methodology (pp. 73–98). Mouton de Gruyter: Berlin, Germany.
  • ——— (1991). The Schetic Categories of the Tlingit verb. PhD dissertation. University of Chicago Department of Linguistics: Chicago, Illinois.
  • ——— (2000). "The negative/irrealis category in Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit", ch. 6 pp. 101–138 in The Athabaskan Languages: Perspectives on a Native American Language Family, Fernald, Theodore B. & Platero, Paul R. (eds.). Volume 24 in Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. ISBN 0-19-511947-9.
  • Leer, Jeff; Hitch, David; & Ritter, John. (2001). Interior Tlingit Noun Dictionary: The dialects spoken by Tlingit elders of Carcross and Teslin, Yukon, and Atlin, British Columbia. Yukon Native Language Center: Whitehorse, Yukon. ISBN 1-55242-227-5.
  • Maddieson, Ian; Smith, Caroline L.; & Bessell, Nicola. (2001). Aspects of the phonetics of Tlingit. Anthropological Linguistics 43(2): 135–176.
  • Naish, Constance M. (1966). A syntactic study of Tlingit. Master's dissertation. University of North Dakota.
  • Naish, Constance M.; & Story, Gillian L. (1973). Tlingit verb dictionary. Summer Institute of Linguistics: College, Alaska. ISBN 0-933769-25-3
  • ——— (1996). The English-Tlingit dictionary: Nouns (3rd ed.; H. Davis & J. Leer, Eds.). Sheldon Jackson College: Sitka, Alaska. (Revision of the Naish-Story dictionary of 1963.)
  • Pinnow, Heinz-Jürgen. (1962). "Two problems of the historical phonology of Na-Dene languages". International Journal of American Linguistics, 28:162–166.
  • ——— (1966). Grundzüge einer historischen Lautlehre des Tlingit: ein Versuch. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • ——— (1976). Geschichte der Na-Dene-Forschung. (Indiana : Beihefte ; 5). Berlin: Mann. ISBN 3-7861-3027-2
  • Swanton, John. (1911). "Tlingit", pp. 159–204 in Handbook of American Indian Languages. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
  • Swanton, John Reed. Tlingit myths and texts. Govt. Printing Office. 1909 [26 August 2012]. 

外部連結[编辑]

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