雨季

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雨季,指在降水量有显著季节差异的地区,年降水量主要发生的月份,通常持续一个或多个月[1] 。拥有雨季的地区分布在热带亚热带[2]

根据柯本气候分类法,对于热带气候,雨季定义为平均降水量60毫米以上的月份[3]。不同的气候类型,雨季也不尽相同。以北半球为例:东亚季风区的雨季主要为夏季南亚季风区的雨季大约在6月~11月;热带莽原气候的雨季为夏季;地中海型气候的雨季为冬季。拥有旱季和雨季也是季风雨林的特色,热带雨林的降雨量则是在全年平均分布[4]。一些有显著雨季的地区,当热带辐合带季风槽移动到较高纬度时,雨季的降雨会中断[5]

若雨季在夏季发生,降水主要在下午和傍晚。雨季时,空气污染改善,淡水水质提高,植被大幅度增长。但同时也会使土壤养分减少,侵蚀增加。特别在热带地区,夏季的雨季会使疟疾发病率增加[6] 。一些动物在雨季会有适应和生存策略。 另外,前一个旱季也通常导致雨季的粮食短缺,因为作物尚未成熟。

受影响的地区[编辑]

撒哈拉以南非洲热带莽原气候区,包括加纳布基纳法索[7][8]南苏丹[9]厄立特里亚[10]埃塞俄比亚[11]博茨瓦纳都有一个明显的雨季[12]佛罗里达州德克萨斯州南部的热带莽原气候区也有一个雨季[13]季风气候区包括印度次大陆东南亚(包括印度尼西亚菲律宾[14]澳大利亚北部[15]波利尼西亚[16]中美洲[17]墨西哥西部和南部[18]美国西南部的沙漠[19]圭亚那南部[20]巴西东北部[21]等。

圭亚那北部有两个雨季:一个在早春,另一个在初冬[20]。 在西非,南部有两个雨季,但北部只有一个[22]。 在地中海气候区,包括美国西海岸,意大利希腊地中海海岸线[23]土耳其的雨季都是在冬季[24]。同样,以色列内盖夫沙漠的雨季是从十月延续至五月[25] 。 在地中海气候区和季风气候区之间的边界,索诺兰沙漠共同拥有这两个气候类型的两个雨季[26]

参见[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (2013). Rainy season. 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2009-02-15. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  2. ^ Michael Pidwirny (2008). CHAPTER 9: Introduction to the Biosphere. PhysicalGeography.net. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  3. ^ Updated world Köppen-Geiger climate classification map (PDF). 
  4. ^ Elisabeth M. Benders-Hyde (2003). World Climates. Blue Planet Biomes. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  5. ^ J. S. 0guntoyinbo and F. 0. Akintola (1983). Rainstorm characteristics affecting water availability for agriculture. 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2009-02-05. IAHS Publication Number 140. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  6. ^ Malaria Fact Sheet. The World Health Organization. April 2016 [2016-04-24]. 
  7. ^ Patrick Laux et al. (2008): Predicting the regional onset of the rainy season in West Africa. International Journal of Climatology, 28 (3), 329–342.
  8. ^ Patrick Laux et al. (2009): Modelling daily precipitation features in the Volta Basin of West Africa. International Journal of Climatology, 29 (7), 937–954.,
  9. ^ David Vandervort (2009). Darfur: getting ready for the rainy season. International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  10. ^ Mehari Tesfazgi Mebrhatu, M. Tsubo, and Sue Walker (2004). A Statistical Model for Seasonal Rainfall Forecasting over the Highlands of Eritrea. New directions for a diverse planet: Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress. Retrieved on 2009-02-08.
  11. ^ Alex Wynter (2009). Ethiopia: March rainy season "critical" for southern pastoralists. Thomson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  12. ^ The Voice (2009). Botswana: Rainy Season Fills Up Dams. allAfrica.com. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  13. ^ Randy Lascody (2008). The Florida Rain Machine. National Weather Service. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  14. ^ OCHA Partnership for Humanity (2008). OCHA Field Situation Report: Indonesia – Rainy Season 1 December 2008. 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期18 February 2009[日期不符]. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  15. ^ Burarra Gathering (2006). Burarra Gathering. Archived 2012-03-21 at WebCite Burarra Gathering. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  16. ^ Tahiti Sun Travel Network (2007). About Bora Bora Island. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  17. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (2006). 2.4 Analysis & Forecasting "Thumb Rules" for the Rainy Season. United States Navy. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  18. ^ Remote Sensing for Migratory Creatures (2002). Phenology and Creature Migration: Dry season and wet season in West Mexico. 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2009-02-19. Arizona Remote Sensing Center. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  19. ^ J. Horel (2006). Normal Monthly Precipitation, Inches. 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2006-11-13. University of Utah. Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
  20. ^ 20.0 20.1 Horace Burton (2006). The climate of Guyana. 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2009-01-24. Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology. The Outfield, August 2006, pp. 3. Retrieved on 2009-02-08.
  21. ^ James Brian Elsner (1988). Analysis of Wet Season Rainfall Over the Nordeste of Brazil, South America. University Of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  22. ^ C. H. Mari, G. Cailley, L. Corre, M. Saunois, J. L. Attie, V. Thouret, and A. Stohl (2007). Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, pp. 17342. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  23. ^ Greek Embassy London (2008). Welcome to Greece. Government of Greece. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  24. ^ D. Bozkurt, O.L. Sen and M. Karaca (2008). Wet season evaluation of RegCM3 performance for Eastern Mediterranean. EGU General Assembly. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  25. ^ Ron Kahana; Baruch Ziv; Yehouda Enzel & Uri Dayan. Synoptic Climatology of Major Floods in the Negev Desert, Israel (PDF). International Journal of Climatology. 2002, 22: 869. Bibcode:2002IJCli..22..867K. doi:10.1002/joc.766. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2011-07-19). 
  26. ^ Michael J. Plagens (2009). What and Where is the Sonoran Desert? Arizonensis. Retrieved on 2009-02-07.