单纯疱疹病毒

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单纯疱疹病毒
TEM 单纯疱疹病毒显微照片 .
TEM 单纯疱疹病毒显微照片 .
病毒分類
組: Group IdsDNA
科: 疱疹病毒
亞科: Alphaherpesvirinae
屬: 单纯疱疹病毒
Species

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HWJ-1)
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HWJ-2)

单纯疱疹病毒 12 (HSV-1HSV-2),也叫人类单纯疱疹病毒 12 (HHV-1 and -2),是疱疹病毒科(Herpesviridae)中的感染人类的两类。[1] HSV-1 和 -2都是普遍存在且接触传染的。当患者产生和释放病毒时,单纯疱疹病毒就会传播。

单纯疱疹病毒感染症状包括口、唇或生殖器的皮肤粘液膜上出现水泡[1] 病灶显示疱疹状的病毒典型的。在病发时,病毒会产生非常轻微或异常症状。 然而,作为亲神经的和神经侵入性的病毒,HSV-1和-2通过潜伏并避开免疫系统,驻留在人体神经细胞内。在第一次感染后,部分患者经历病毒再激活或暴发散发期。 发病时,神经细胞中的病毒变得活跃,通过神经轴突转移到皮肤,出现病毒复制和释放,导致新的疼痛。[2]

传播[编辑]

HSV-1和-2是通过接触病毒复发期皮肤感染区而传染的。潜伏期,疱疹病毒并不传染。在病毒症状复发期,伴有可见的和典型的皮肤疼痛,传染很可能发生。无症状的复发是指病毒导致非典型的、轻微的或不明显的症状,不能确认为发病疱疹症状。非典型症状通常归咎于其他原因,如酵母菌感染[3] [4] 。HSV-1是通常幼儿期口传染的,但也可能是性传染的。 HSV-2主要是性传染的,但HSV-1生殖器感染率正不断增长[3]

尽管可能性很小,两种病毒也都可能通过分娩传染的[5] 。如果母亲在分娩时没有症状或爆开的水泡,传染的可能性极小。母亲在怀妊晚期首次得此病毒,传染的可能性极大[6]

通常第一次感染HSV时,疱疹症状会最严重,因为身体里还没有生殖器疱疹抗体来帮助你抵抗疱疹病毒。首次口腔疱疹(口腔疼痛)发作≈1%可能发展成无菌性脑膜炎[1]

微生物学[编辑]

病毒结构[编辑]

動物疱疹病毒有相同的特性。疱疹病毒的結構包含了相當大的雙絞股、線性的DNA基因組,以稱為衣殼正二十面體蛋白質外殼,衣殼又被稱為病毒包膜envelope)的脂雙層lipid bilayer)包起。

The open reading frames (ORFs) of HSV-1[7][8]
基因 蛋白質 功能/描述 基因 蛋白質 功能/描述
UL1 糖蛋白 L [1] Surface and membrane UL38 UL38; VP19C [2] Capsid assembly and DNA maturation
UL2 UL2 [3] Uracil-DNA glycosylase UL39 UL39 [4] Ribonucleotide reductase (Large subunit)
UL3 UL3 [5] unknown UL40 UL40 [6] Ribonucleotide reductase (Small subunit)
UL4 UL4 [7] unknown UL41 UL41; VHS [8] Tegument protein; Virion host shutoff[9]
UL5 UL5 [9] DNA複製 UL42 UL42 [10] DNA polymerase processivity factor
UL6 UL6 [11] Processing and packaging DNA UL43 UL43 [12] Membrane protein
UL7 UL7 [13] Virion maturation UL44 Glycoprotein C [14] Surface and membrane
UL8 UL8 [15] DNA helicase/引发酶 complex-associated protein UL45 UL45 [16] Membrane protein; C-type lectin[10]
UL9 UL9 [17] Replication origin-binding protein UL46 VP11/12 [18] Tegument proteins
UL10 Glycoprotein M [19] Surface and membrane UL47 UL47; VP13/14 [20] Tegument protein
UL11 UL11 [21] virion exit and secondary envelopment UL48 VP16 (Alpha-TIF) [22] Virion maturation; activate IEGs by interacting with the cellular transcription factors Oct-1 and HCF. Binds to the sequence 5'TAATGARAT3'.
UL12 UL12 [23] Alkaline exonuclease UL49 UL49A [24] Envelope protein
UL13 UL13 [25] Serine-threonine protein kinase UL50 UL50 [26] dUTP diphosphatase
UL14 UL14 [27] Tegument protein UL51 UL51 [28] Tegument protein
UL15 Terminase [29] Processing and packaging of DNA UL52 UL52 [30] DNA helicase/primase complex protein
UL16 UL16 [31] Tegument protein UL53 Glycoprotein K [32] Surface and membrane
UL17 UL17 [33] Processing and packaging DNA UL54 IE63; ICP27 [34] Transcriptional regulation
UL18 VP23 [35] Capsid protein UL55 UL55 [36] Unknown
UL19 VP5 [37] Major capsid protein UL56 UL56 [38] Unknown
UL20 UL20 [39] Membrane protein US1 ICP22; IE68 [40] Viral replication
UL21 UL21 [41] Tegument protein[11] US2 US2 [42] Unknown
UL22 Glycoprotein H [43] Surface and membrane US3 US3 [44] Serine/threonine-protein kinase
UL23 Thymidine kinase [45] Peripheral to DNA replication US4 Glycoprotein G [46] Surface and membrane
UL24 UL24 [47] unknown US5 Glycoprotein J [48] Surface and membrane
UL25 UL25 [49] Processing and packaging DNA US6 Glycoprotein D [50] Surface and membrane
UL26 P40; VP24; VP22A [51] Capsid protein US7 Glycoprotein I [52] Surface and membrane
UL27 Glycoprotein B [53] Surface and membrane US8 Glycoprotein E [54] Surface and membrane
UL28 ICP18.5 [55] Processing and packaging DNA US9 US9 [56] Tegument protein
UL29 UL29; ICP8 [57] Major DNA-binding protein US10 US10 [58] Capsid/Tegument protein
UL30 DNA polymerase [59] DNA replication US11 US11; Vmw21 [60] Binds DNA and RNA
UL31 UL31 [61] Nuclear matrix protein US12 ICP47; IE12 [62] Inhibits MHC class I pathway by preventing binding of antigen to TAP
UL32 UL32 [63] Envelope glycoprotein RS1 ICP4; IE175 [64] Activates gene transcription
UL33 UL33 [65] Processing and packaging DNA ICP0 ICP0; IE110; α0 [66] E3 ubiquitin ligase that activates viral gene transcription and counteracts the interferon response
UL34 UL34 [67] Inner nuclear membrane protein LRP1 LRP1 [68] Latency-related protein
UL35 VP26 [69] Capsid protein LRP2 LRP2 [70] Latency-related protein
UL36 UL36 [71] Large tegument protein RL1 RL1; ICP34.5 [72] Neurovirulence factor. Antagonizes PKR by de-phosphorylating eIF4a.
UL37 UL37 [73] Capsid assembly LAT none [74] Latency-associated transcript

进入细胞[编辑]

免疫[编辑]

复制[编辑]

潜伏性感染[编辑]

治疗和疫苗开发[编辑]

和阿尔茨海默病的关系[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors). Sherris Medical Microbiology 4th. McGraw Hill. 2004: 555–62. ISBN 0838585299. 
  2. ^ Herpes simplex. DermNet NZ — New Zealand Dermatological Society. 2006-09-16 [2006-10-15]. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Gupta R, Warren T, Wald A. Genital herpes. Lancet. 2007, 370 (9605): 2127–37. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61908-4. PMID 18156035. 
  4. ^ Koelle DM, Corey L. Herpes simplex: insights on pathogenesis and possible vaccines. Annual Review of Medicine. 2008, 59: 381–95. doi:10.1146/annurev.med.59.061606.095540. PMID 18186706. 
  5. ^ Corey L, Wald A. Maternal and Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infections. New England Journal of Medicine. 2009, 361 (14): 1376–85. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0807633. PMC 2780322. PMID 19797284. 
  6. ^ Kimberlin DW. Herpes simplex virus infections of the newborn. Semin. Perinatol. 2007, 31 (1): 19–25. doi:10.1053/j.semperi.2007.01.003. PMID 17317423. 
  7. ^ McGeoch DJ, Rixon FJ, Davison AJ. Topics in herpesvirus genomics and evolution. Virus Res. 2006, 117 (1): 90–104. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2006.01.002. PMID 16490275. 
  8. ^ Search in UniProt Knowledgebase (Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL) for: HHV1
  9. ^ Matis J, Kúdelová M. Early shutoff of host protein synthesis in cells infected with herpes simplex viruses. Acta Virol. 2001, 45 (5-6): 269–77. PMID 12083325. 
  10. ^ Wyrwicz LS, Ginalski K, Rychlewski L. HSV-1 UL45 encodes a carbohydrate binding C-type lectin protein. Cell Cycle. 2007, 7 (2): 269–71. PMID 18256535. 
  11. ^ Vittone V, Diefenbach E, Triffett D, Douglas MW, Cunningham AL, Diefenbach RJ. Determination of interactions between tegument proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1. J. Virol. 2005, 79 (15): 9566–71. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.15.9566-9571.2005. PMC 1181608. PMID 16014918. 

外部連結[编辑]