古英语

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古英語
ÆngliscAngliscEnglisc
Beowulf.Kenning.jpg
贝奥武夫》首页,图中文字为“ofer hron rade”,意为“鲸路(海)之上”。此为古英语表达形式之一,称比喻复合辞。
区域 英格兰(除西南端和西北端),苏格兰南部和东部、威尔士东部边缘。
年代 13世纪前发展为中古英语
語系
方言
文字 卢恩字母英语Anglo-Saxon runes、后拉丁字母古英语字母英语Old English Latin alphabet)。
語言代碼
ISO 639-2 ang
ISO 639-3 ang
本条目包含国际音标符号。部分操作系统浏览器需要特殊字母与符号支持才能正確显示,否则可能显示为乱码、问号、空格等其它符号。

古英语古英语Ænglisc英语Old English)或盎格魯-撒克遜語英语Anglo-Saxon)是指从450年到1150年间在對應於今天英格蘭和蘇格蘭東南部的人說的英语。古英語屬於西日耳曼語,和古弗里西語及古撒克遜語有密切關係。古英語和近代英语无论在读音拼写词汇语法上都很不一样。古英语的语法和拉丁語德语冰島語比较相近,形态变化很复杂。

代表時期[编辑]

古英語可以分為:

史前古英語 (公元450年至650年),在這段時期,因為缺乏相關文獻,古英語只能構擬出來,是當時盎格魯人撒克遜人朱特人英格蘭地區的語言。

早期古英語 (公元650年至900年),在這段時期,開始出現最古老的英語文獻。

後期古英語 (公元900年至1066年),古英語的最後階段,隨着諾曼征服,過渡至中古英語

音系[编辑]

古英語的音位表重構如下:

  雙唇音 唇齒音 齒音 齒齦音 齦後音 硬腭音 軟腭音 聲門音
鼻音 m     n     (ŋ)  
塞音 p  b     t  d     k  ɡ  
塞擦音         tʃ  (dʒ)      
擦音   f  (v) θ  (ð) s  (z) ʃ (ç) (x)  (ɣ) h
近音       r   j w  
邊音       l        

括號中的是同位異音:

  • [dʒ]/j/ 的同位異音,出現於 /n/ 之後與長輔音
  • [ŋ]/n/ 的同位異音,出現在 /k//ɡ/ 之前
  • [v, ð, z] 分別是 /f, θ, s/ 的同位異音,出現在元音濁音之間
  • [ç, x]/h/ 的同位異音,分別出現於在前和後元音之后的音節韻尾
  • [ɣ]/ɡ/ 的同位異音,出現於元音之後和早期的詞首輔音叢中
單元音
i  y u iː  yː
e  (ø) o eː  (øː)
æ ɑ æː ɑː

圓唇元音 /ø(ː)/ 出現在某些方言中,但在信料最好的后期西撒克遜方言中未出現。

雙元音 短(單音重) 長(雙音重)
前音素閉 iy[1] iːy
二音素中 eo eːo
二音素開 æɑ æːɑ

文法[编辑]

古英语的名词有数和格的分别。分为单数复数分为主格屬格与格宾格。因此一个名词的變化數目,將數與格的變化相乘之後,共有8种变化形式。此外,名詞还分三個性別:阳性中性阴性。这些性的区分并不是以自然性别来判断的。例如妇女(wifmann)就是阳性的。

形容词的形态变化分为强、弱两种,它的数和格也共有8种变化。

动词只有现在式过去式两种时态变化。

文學[编辑]

古英語重要的文學作品包括《貝奧武夫》(Beowolf)、《盎格魯撒克遜編年史》(Anglo-Saxon Chronicle)等。

古英語文選[编辑]

下文節選自《貝奧武夫》,約於公元900年

原始 直譯
[1] Hwæt! wē Gār-Dena in geār-dagum, What! We [of] Gar-Danes (lit. spear-danes) in yore-days,
[2] þeod-cyninga, þrym gefrunon, [of] people-kings, trim (glory) afrained (have learned of by asking),
[3] hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon. how those athelings (princes) arm-strong feats framed (made/performed).
[4] Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena þreatum, Oft Scyld Scefing, [from] scathers (enemies) [in] threats (armed bands),
[5] monegum mægþum, meodosetla ofteah, [from] many magths (clans, groups of sons, cf. Irish cognate Mac-), mead-settles took,
[6] egsode eorl. Syððan ærest wearð awed earls (leaders of men). Sith (since) erst (first) [he] worth (came to be)
[7] feasceaft funden, he þæs frofre gebad, fewshiped (helpless, in "fewship") founden, he [in a state of] loving care abode (lived),
[8] weox under wolcnum, weorðmyndum þah, wex (waxed) under welkin (the clouds), [in] mind's-worth (honour) thrived,
[9] oðþæt him æghwylc þara ymbsittendra oth that (until that) [to] him each [of] those [who were] by-sitting ("sitting" or dwelling roundabout)
[10] ofer hronrade hyran scolde, over whale-road (kenning for sea) hear (obedience) should (owed),
[11] gomban gyldan. Þæt wæs god cyning! gifts [to] yield. That was [a] good king!

現代英語意譯:

“Listen! We have heard of the glory of the Spear-Danes, of the kings of the people, in days of yore, [and] how those princes did deeds of glory. Often Scyld Scefing deprived armed bands of foes, many clans of mead-benches, [and] terrified warriors. Since he first was found helpless (he experienced comfort for that), he grew under the heavens, thrived with honours, until each of the nearby peoples over the sea were obliged to pay him tribute. That was a good king!”


下文節選自《主禱文》(The Lord's Prayer

原始 直譯
[1] Fæder ūre þū þe eart on heofonum, Father of ours, thou who art in heavens,
[2] Sī þīn nama ġehālgod. Be thy name hallowed.
[3] Tōbecume þīn rīċe, Come thy riche (kingdom),
[4] ġewurþe þīn willa, on eorðan swā swā on heofonum. Worth (manifest) thy will, on earth as also in heaven.
[5] Ūre ġedæġhwāmlīcan hlāf syle ūs tō dæġ, Our daily loaf do sell (give) to us today,
[6] and forġyf ūs ūre gyltas, swā swā wē forġyfað ūrum gyltendum. And forgive us our guilts as also we forgive our guilters [2]
[7] And ne ġelǣd þū ūs on costnunge, ac ālȳs ūs of yfele. And do not lead thou us into temptation, but alese (release/deliver) us of (from) evil.
[8] Sōþlīċe. Soothly.


下文節選自《Charter of Cnut

原始 直譯
¶ Cnut cyning gret his arcebiscopas and his leod-biscopas and Þurcyl eorl and ealle his eorlas and ealne his þeodscype, twelfhynde and twyhynde, gehadode and læwede, on Englalande freondlice. ¶ Cnut, king, greets his archbishops and his lede'(people's)'-bishops and Thorkell, earl, and all his earls and all his peopleship, greater (having a 1200 shilling weregild) and lesser (200 shilling weregild), hooded(ordained to priesthood) and lewd(lay), in England friendly.
And ic cyðe eow, þæt ic wylle beon hold hlaford and unswicende to godes gerihtum and to rihtre woroldlage. And I kithe(make known/couth to) you, that I will be [a] hold(civilised) lord and unswiking(uncheating) to God's rights(laws) and to [the] rights(laws) worldly.
¶ Ic nam me to gemynde þa gewritu and þa word, þe se arcebiscop Lyfing me fram þam papan brohte of Rome, þæt ic scolde æghwær godes lof upp aræran and unriht alecgan and full frið wyrcean be ðære mihte, þe me god syllan wolde. ¶ I nam(took) me to mind the writs and the word that the Archbishop Lyfing me from the Pope brought of Rome, that I should ayewhere(everywhere) God's love(praise) uprear(promote), and unright(outlaw) lies, and full frith(peace) work(bring about) by the might that me God would(wished) [to] sell'(give).
¶ Nu ne wandode ic na minum sceattum, þa hwile þe eow unfrið on handa stod: nu ic mid godes fultume þæt totwæmde mid minum scattum. ¶ Now, ne went(withdrew/changed) I not my shot(financial contribution, cf. Norse cognate in scot-free) the while that you stood(endured) unfrith(turmoil) on-hand: now I, mid(with) God's support, that [unfrith] totwemed(separated/dispelled) mid(with) my shot(financial contribution).
Þa cydde man me, þæt us mara hearm to fundode, þonne us wel licode: and þa for ic me sylf mid þam mannum þe me mid foron into Denmearcon, þe eow mæst hearm of com: and þæt hæbbe mid godes fultume forene forfangen, þæt eow næfre heonon forð þanon nan unfrið to ne cymð, þa hwile þe ge me rihtlice healdað and min lif byð. Tho(then) [a] man kithed(made known/couth to) me that us more harm had found(come upon) than us well liked(equalled): and tho(then) fore(travelled) I, meself, mid(with) those men that mid(with) me fore(travelled), into Denmark that [to] you most harm came of(from): and that[harm] have [I], mid(with) God's support, afore(previously) forefangen(forestalled) that to you never henceforth thence none unfrith(breach of peace) ne come the while that ye me rightly hold(behold as king) and my life beeth.

参看[编辑]

引用[编辑]

  1. ^ 無法確定拼作ie/īe雙元音對究竟是[i(ː)y]還是[i(ː)e]. 該構擬基於許多方言併之入/y(ː)/.
  2. ^ Lit. a participle: "guilting" or "[a person who is] sinning"; cf. Latin cognate -ant/-ent.


前罗马铁器时代英语Pre-Roman Iron Age
前500年–前100年
罗马铁器时代英语Roman Iron Age早期
前100年–100年
罗马铁器时代英语Roman Iron Age晚期
100年–300年
迁徙时期
300年–600年
中世纪前期
600年–1100年
中世纪
1100–1350年
中世纪后期2
1350年–1500年
近代早期
1500年–1700年
现代
1700年至今
原始日耳曼语 西日耳曼语 厄尔米诺内语
(易北河日耳曼语)
原始高地德语 古高地德语
伦巴底语英语Lombardic language1
中古高地德语 早期现代高地德语英语Early New High German 高地德语各变种
标准德语
伊斯特沃内语英语Istvaeones
(威悉-莱茵日耳曼语)
原始法兰克语 古法兰克语 古中部德语 中古中部德语 早期现代中部德语英语Early New High German
中部德语各变种
古低地法兰克语英语Old Dutch
(古荷兰语)
早期林堡语
中古荷兰语英语Middle Dutch
晚期林堡语
中古荷兰语英语Middle Dutch
早期林堡语 林堡语
早期
中古荷兰语英语Middle Dutch
晚期
中古荷兰语英语Middle Dutch
早期
现代荷兰语
荷兰语各变种
南非语
因格沃内语英语Ingvaeonic languages
(北海日耳曼语)
原始撒克逊语
(东南因格沃内语)
古撒克逊语英语Old Saxon 中古低地德语英语Middle Low German 低地德语各变种
盎格鲁-弗里西语
(西北因格沃内语)
原始弗里西语 古弗里西语英语Old Frisian 中古弗里西语英语Middle Frisian 弗里西语各变种
原始英语 古英语
(盎格鲁-撒克逊)
早期
中古英语
晚期
中古英语
近代英语 英语各变种
早期苏格兰语英语Early Scots3 中古苏格兰语英语Middle Scots 苏格兰语各变种英语Modern Scots
北日耳曼语 原始诺尔斯语 卢恩
古西诺尔斯语
古冰岛语 晚期
古冰岛语
冰岛语
古挪威语6 法罗语 法罗语
诺恩语 诺恩语 灭绝4
卢恩
古东诺尔斯语
中古挪威语 挪威语
早期
丹麦语
晚期
丹麦语
丹麦语
早期
古瑞典语英语Old Swedish
晚期
古瑞典语英语Old Swedish
瑞典语
达拉纳方言英语Dalecarlian dialects
卢恩
古哥得兰语英语Old Gutnish
早期
古哥得兰语英语Old Gutnish
晚期
古哥得兰语英语Old Gutnish
哥得兰语英语Modern Gutnish5
东日耳曼语 哥特语 (未证实哥特语方言) 克里米亚哥特语英语Crimean Gothic language 灭绝
汪达尔语英语Vandalic language 灭绝
勃艮第语 灭绝
  • ^1 伦巴底语的谱系学界分类存在争议。其亦被归类为同古撒克逊语相近。
  • ^2 中世纪后期指黑死病时期之后。黑死病对当时挪威语言状况的影响尤甚。
  • ^3 自早期北部中古英语产生[1]。麦克鲁尔认为应为诺森布里亚古英语[2]。《牛津简明英语语言词典》(第894页)中称苏格兰语的“来源”为“伯尼西亚王国的古英语”和“12至13世纪来自北英格兰英格兰中部移民受到斯堪的纳维亚影响的英语”。“早期-中古-现代苏格兰语”的阶段划分在《简明苏格兰语词典》[3]及《古苏格兰语辞典》[4]中得到使用。
  • ^4 诺恩语的使用者为现代苏格兰语所同化(海岛苏格兰语英语Insular Scots)。
  • ^5 现代哥得兰语(Gutamål)为古哥得兰语(Gutniska)的直系继承,现已成为标准瑞典语的哥得兰岛方言(Gotländska)。
  • ^6 大陆古挪威语为介于古西诺尔斯语和古东诺尔斯语之间的方言。
  1. ^ Aitken, A. J. and McArthur, T. Eds. (1979) Languages of Scotland. Edinburgh,Chambers. p. 87
  2. ^ McClure (1991) in The Cambridge History of the English Language Vol. 5. p. 23.
  3. ^ Robinson M. (ed.) (1985) the "Concise Scots Dictionary, Chambers, Edinburgh. p. xiii
  4. ^ Dareau M., Pike l. and Watson, H (eds) (2002) "A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue" Vol. XII, Oxford University Press. p. xxxiv