古英语

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古英語
Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc
区域 現在的英格蘭(除了極西南和西北部分),福斯河南現在蘇格蘭的部分地區,和現在的威爾士東部邊緣。
語言滅亡 在12世紀發展成中古英語
語系
語言代碼
ISO 639-2 ang
ISO 639-3 ang

古英语古英语Ænglisc英语Old English)或盎格魯-撒克遜語英语Anglo-Saxon)是指从450年到1150年间在對應於今天英格蘭和蘇格蘭東南部的人說的英语。古英語屬於西日耳曼語,和古弗里西語及古撒克遜語有密切關係。古英語和近代英语无论在读音拼写词汇语法上都很不一样。古英语的语法和拉丁語德语冰島語比较相近,形态变化很复杂。

代表時期[编辑]

古英語可以分為:

史前古英語 (公元450年至650年),在這段時期,因為缺乏相關文獻,古英語只能構擬出來,是當時盎格魯人撒克遜人朱特人英格蘭地區的語言。

早期古英語 (公元650年至900年),在這段時期,開始出現最古老的英語文獻。

後期古英語 (公元900年至1066年),古英語的最後階段,隨着諾曼征服,過渡至中古英語

音系[编辑]

古英語的音位表重構如下:

  雙唇音 唇齒音 齒音 齒齦音 齦後音 硬腭音 軟腭音 聲門音
鼻音 m     n     (ŋ)  
塞音 p  b     t  d     k  ɡ  
塞擦音         tʃ  (dʒ)      
擦音   f  (v) θ  (ð) s  (z) ʃ (ç) (x)  (ɣ) h
近音       r   j w  
邊音       l        

括號中的是同位異音:

  • [dʒ]/j/ 的同位異音,出現於 /n/ 之後與長輔音
  • [ŋ]/n/ 的同位異音,出現在 /k//ɡ/ 之前
  • [v, ð, z] 分別是 /f, θ, s/ 的同位異音,出現在元音濁音之間
  • [ç, x]/h/ 的同位異音,分別出現於在前和後元音之后的音節韻尾
  • [ɣ]/ɡ/ 的同位異音,出現於元音之後和早期的詞首輔音叢中
單元音
i  y u iː  yː
e  (ø) o eː  (øː)
æ ɑ æː ɑː

圓唇元音 /ø(ː)/ 出現在某些方言中,但在信料最好的后期西撒克遜方言中未出現。

雙元音 短(單音重) 長(雙音重)
前音素閉 iy[1] iːy
二音素中 eo eːo
二音素開 æɑ æːɑ

文法[编辑]

古英语的名词有数和格的分别。分为单数复数分为主格屬格与格宾格。因此一个名词的變化數目,將數與格的變化相乘之後,共有8种变化形式。此外,名詞还分三個性別:阳性中性阴性。这些性的区分并不是以自然性别来判断的。例如妇女(wifmann)就是阳性的。

形容词的形态变化分为强、弱两种,它的数和格也共有8种变化。

动词只有现在式过去式两种时态变化。

文學[编辑]

古英語重要的文學作品包括《貝奧武夫》(Beowolf)、《盎格魯撒克遜編年史》(Anglo-Saxon Chronicle)等。

古英語文選[编辑]

下文節選自《貝奧武夫》,約於公元900年

原始 直譯
[1] Hwæt! wē Gār-Dena in geār-dagum, What! We [of] Gar-Danes (lit. spear-danes) in yore-days,
[2] þeod-cyninga, þrym gefrunon, [of] people-kings, trim (glory) afrained (have learned of by asking),
[3] hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon. how those athelings (princes) arm-strong feats framed (made/performed).
[4] Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena þreatum, Oft Scyld Scefing, [from] scathers (enemies) [in] threats (armed bands),
[5] monegum mægþum, meodosetla ofteah, [from] many magths (clans, groups of sons, cf. Irish cognate Mac-), mead-settles took,
[6] egsode eorl. Syððan ærest wearð awed earls (leaders of men). Sith (since) erst (first) [he] worth (came to be)
[7] feasceaft funden, he þæs frofre gebad, fewshiped (helpless, in "fewship") founden, he [in a state of] loving care abode (lived),
[8] weox under wolcnum, weorðmyndum þah, wex (waxed) under welkin (the clouds), [in] mind's-worth (honour) thrived,
[9] oðþæt him æghwylc þara ymbsittendra oth that (until that) [to] him each [of] those [who were] by-sitting ("sitting" or dwelling roundabout)
[10] ofer hronrade hyran scolde, over whale-road (kenning for sea) hear (obedience) should (owed),
[11] gomban gyldan. Þæt wæs god cyning! gifts [to] yield. That was [a] good king!

現代英語意譯:

“Listen! We have heard of the glory of the Spear-Danes, of the kings of the people, in days of yore, [and] how those princes did deeds of glory. Often Scyld Scefing deprived armed bands of foes, many clans of mead-benches, [and] terrified warriors. Since he first was found helpless (he experienced comfort for that), he grew under the heavens, thrived with honours, until each of the nearby peoples over the sea were obliged to pay him tribute. That was a good king!”


下文節選自《主禱文》(The Lord's Prayer

原始 直譯
[1] Fæder ūre þū þe eart on heofonum, Father of ours, thou who art in heavens,
[2] Sī þīn nama ġehālgod. Be thy name hallowed.
[3] Tōbecume þīn rīċe, Come thy riche (kingdom),
[4] ġewurþe þīn willa, on eorðan swā swā on heofonum. Worth (manifest) thy will, on earth as also in heaven.
[5] Ūre ġedæġhwāmlīcan hlāf syle ūs tō dæġ, Our daily loaf do sell (give) to us today,
[6] and forġyf ūs ūre gyltas, swā swā wē forġyfað ūrum gyltendum. And forgive us our guilts as also we forgive our guilters [2]
[7] And ne ġelǣd þū ūs on costnunge, ac ālȳs ūs of yfele. And do not lead thou us into temptation, but alese (release/deliver) us of (from) evil.
[8] Sōþlīċe. Soothly.


下文節選自《Charter of Cnut

原始 直譯
¶ Cnut cyning gret his arcebiscopas and his leod-biscopas and Þurcyl eorl and ealle his eorlas and ealne his þeodscype, twelfhynde and twyhynde, gehadode and læwede, on Englalande freondlice. ¶ Cnut, king, greets his archbishops and his lede'(people's)'-bishops and Thorkell, earl, and all his earls and all his peopleship, greater (having a 1200 shilling weregild) and lesser (200 shilling weregild), hooded(ordained to priesthood) and lewd(lay), in England friendly.
And ic cyðe eow, þæt ic wylle beon hold hlaford and unswicende to godes gerihtum and to rihtre woroldlage. And I kithe(make known/couth to) you, that I will be [a] hold(civilised) lord and unswiking(uncheating) to God's rights(laws) and to [the] rights(laws) worldly.
¶ Ic nam me to gemynde þa gewritu and þa word, þe se arcebiscop Lyfing me fram þam papan brohte of Rome, þæt ic scolde æghwær godes lof upp aræran and unriht alecgan and full frið wyrcean be ðære mihte, þe me god syllan wolde. ¶ I nam(took) me to mind the writs and the word that the Archbishop Lyfing me from the Pope brought of Rome, that I should ayewhere(everywhere) God's love(praise) uprear(promote), and unright(outlaw) lies, and full frith(peace) work(bring about) by the might that me God would(wished) [to] sell'(give).
¶ Nu ne wandode ic na minum sceattum, þa hwile þe eow unfrið on handa stod: nu ic mid godes fultume þæt totwæmde mid minum scattum. ¶ Now, ne went(withdrew/changed) I not my shot(financial contribution, cf. Norse cognate in scot-free) the while that you stood(endured) unfrith(turmoil) on-hand: now I, mid(with) God's support, that [unfrith] totwemed(separated/dispelled) mid(with) my shot(financial contribution).
Þa cydde man me, þæt us mara hearm to fundode, þonne us wel licode: and þa for ic me sylf mid þam mannum þe me mid foron into Denmearcon, þe eow mæst hearm of com: and þæt hæbbe mid godes fultume forene forfangen, þæt eow næfre heonon forð þanon nan unfrið to ne cymð, þa hwile þe ge me rihtlice healdað and min lif byð. Tho(then) [a] man kithed(made known/couth to) me that us more harm had found(come upon) than us well liked(equalled): and tho(then) fore(travelled) I, meself, mid(with) those men that mid(with) me fore(travelled), into Denmark that [to] you most harm came of(from): and that[harm] have [I], mid(with) God's support, afore(previously) forefangen(forestalled) that to you never henceforth thence none unfrith(breach of peace) ne come the while that ye me rightly hold(behold as king) and my life beeth.

参看[编辑]

引用[编辑]

  1. ^ 無法確定拼作ie/īe雙元音對究竟是[i(ː)y]還是[i(ː)e]. 該構擬基於許多方言併之入/y(ː)/.
  2. ^ Lit. a participle: "guilting" or "[a person who is] sinning"; cf. Latin cognate -ant/-ent.


铁器时代
前500年200年
原始日耳曼语
东日耳曼语 西日耳曼语 北日耳曼语
高地德語 低地法蘭克語 低地德語 盎格魯-弗里西語
迁移时代
200年700年
哥德語 倫巴底語1   古弗兰科尼亚语 古薩克遜語 古弗里斯兰语 古英语 原始諾爾斯語
汪达尔语勃艮第语 古高地德语
中世纪早期
700年1100年
古低地弗兰科尼亚语 盧恩字母写的古西諾爾斯語 盧恩字母写的古東諾爾斯語
中世纪
1100年1350年
中古高地德語 中古荷兰语 中古低地德语 中古英语 古苏格兰语 古冰岛语 古挪威语 早期古丹麦语 早期古瑞典语 早期古哥德兰语
中世纪晚期2
1350年1500年
晚期古冰岛语 古法羅語 諾恩語 中古挪威语 晚期古丹麦语 晚期古瑞典语 晚期古哥德兰语
现代早期
1500年1700年
克里米亚哥特语 早期现代高地德语 低地弗兰科尼亚语,包括荷兰语在内 西低地德语东低地德语 中古弗里斯兰语 早期现代英语 中古苏格兰语 冰岛语 法罗语 諾恩語 挪威语 丹麦语 瑞典语 哥德兰语
现代
1700年至今
全部灭绝 高地德语诸方言 弗里斯兰语诸方言 英语诸方言 现代苏格兰语诸方言 已灭绝3 已灭绝4

注1:倫巴底语的谱系学界有分歧。表中的位置只是其中的一种看法。另一种则把它归至与上德语(Upper German)或古薩克遜語相似的位置。

注2:中世纪晚期指黑死病时期之后。黑死病对当时挪威语言状况的影响尤甚。

注3:诺恩语使用者(的后裔)已改说现代苏格兰语诸方言

注4:现在的哥德兰语实际上已成为瑞典语方言