歐托-曼格語系

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歐托-曼格語系
Oto-Manguean
地理分佈: 中美洲
谱系学分类 世界上的主要語系之一
分支:
ISO 639-5: omq
Otomanguean Languages.png

歐托-曼格語系(Oto-Manguean languages、Otomanguean)是一個包含多個美洲原住民語言的大語系。現在只有墨西哥的原住民仍然在使用著。但是在過去,歐托-曼格語系的Manguean最南分佈到尼加拉瓜哥斯大黎加。現在使用人數最多的兩個語支是位於瓦哈卡州的Zapotecan與Mixtecan,合共約150萬人。在墨西哥中部,特別是在墨西哥州伊達爾戈州克雷塔羅州有約50萬人在使用歐托-曼格語系的Otomi和十分接近的Mazahua語言。一些歐托-曼格語系語言正瀕臨滅絕。例如,Ixcatec與Matlatzinca這兩個語言各剩下不到250人的使用人口,而且絕大部分是老年人。其他的位於墨西哥以外的Manguean語言已經滅絕,當中包括Chiapanec語言,這是最近才宣佈滅絕的。而與Me'phaa最接近的滅絕語言Subtiaba,只有在20世紀初才有過它的記述。

歐托-曼格語系是中美洲語種最多與分佈最廣泛的一個語系。內部的多樣性可以堪比印度-歐羅巴語系,而Proto-Oto-Manguean語言據估計在公元前2000年前就已經開始被使用。這就是說起碼在過去的4000年裏,歐托-曼格語系已經與中美洲的其他語言共存並發展出共同的特性。在這樣的程度上,已經可以將它們看作是一個語言區域,稱作中美洲語言區。然而歐托-曼格語系同時因多個特色脫穎而出於其他的中美洲語系。它是北美洲和中美洲唯一的聲調語言。同時讓歐托-曼格語系脫穎而出的是它比其它的中美洲語言擁有更多分析語結構。另一個典型特點是,歐托-曼格語系基本上都是以VSO(謂主賓結構)作為語序的。

語系概觀[编辑]

《歐托-曼格語系》系譜分類
語系 語群 語言 使用語言的約略數
歐托-曼格語系
西歐托-曼格語群 Oto-Pame–Chinantecan Oto-Pamean Otomis (Hñähñu) (several varieties) Central México (c. 212,000)
Mazahua (Hñatho) México (state) (c. 350,000)
Matlatzinca México (state). Two varieties: Ocuiltec–Tlahuica (c. 450) and Matlatzinca de San Francisco (c. 1,300)
Pame San Luis Potosí. Three varieties: Southern Pame (presumed to have no speakers), Central Pame (c. 5,000), Northern Pame (c. 5,000).
Chichimeca Jonaz Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí (c. 1,500)
Chinantecan Chinantec northern Oaxaca and southern Veracruz, (c. 224,000)
Tlapanec–Mangue Tlapanecan Tlapanec (Me'phaa) Guerrero (c. 75,000)
Subtiaba (†) Honduras
Manguean Chiapanec (†) Chiapas
Mangue (†) Nicaragua
Chorotega (†) Costa Rica
東歐托-曼格語群 Popolocan–Zapotecan Popolocan Mazatec north-eastern Oaxaca and Veracruz (c. 206,000)
Ixcatec northern Oaxaca (< 100)
Chocho northern Oaxaca (< 1000)
Popolocan Southern Puebla, (c. 30,000)
Zapotecan 萨波特克语 (約有50種方言) Central and eastern Oaxaca (c. 785,000)
Chatino Oaxaca (c. 23,000)
Papabuco Oaxaca
Soltec Oaxaca
Amuzgo–Mixtecan[1] Amuzgoan Amuzgo (around 4 variants) Oaxaca y Guerrero (c. 44,000)
Mixtecan Mixtecs (around 30 variants) central, southern and western Oaxaca; southern Puebla and eastern Guerrero (c. 511,000)
奎卡特克语 Cuicatlán, Oaxaca, (c. 18,500)
特里基语 (亦稱"特里奎語"(Triqui)) 西瓦哈卡州(約23,000人)

參考文獻[编辑]

Bartholomew, Doris. Some revisions of Proto-Otomi consonants. International Journal of American Linguistics. October 1960, 26 (4): 317–329. doi:10.2307/1263552. 
Brinton, Daniel G. Notes on the Mangue; An Extinct Dialect Formerly Spoken in Nicaragua. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 1886, 23 (122): 238–257. 
Brown, Cecil H. Paleobiolinguistics of New World Crops and the Otomanguean Language Family. Ethnobiology Letters. 2015, 6 (1): 189–191. doi:10.14237/ebl.6.1.2015.436. 
Campbell, Lyle. American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America (Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics, 4). New York: Oxford University Press. 1997. ISBN 0-19-509427-1. 
Fernández de Miranda, Mariá Teresa; Roberto J. Weitlaner. Sobre Algunas Relaciones de la Familia Mangue. Anthropological Linguistics 3. 1961: 1–99. 
Kaufman, Terrence; Justeson, John. Historical linguistics and pre-columbian Mesoamerica. Ancient Mesoamerica. 2009, 20: 221–231. doi:10.1017/S0956536109990113. 
Merrifield, William R. Proto Otomanguean kinship. International Museum of Cultures Publication, 11. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics. 1981. 
Newman, Stanley; Weitlaner, Roberto. Central Otomian I:Proto-Otomian reconstructions. International Journal of American Linguistics. 1950a, 16 (1): 1–19. JSTOR 1262748. doi:10.1086/464056. 
Newman, Stanley; Weitlaner, Roberto. Central Otomian II:Primitive central otomian reconstructions. International Journal of American Linguistics. 1950b, 16 (2): 73–81. JSTOR 1262851. doi:10.1086/464067. 
Rensch, Calvin. Classification of the Oto-Manguean Languages and the position of Tlapanec. (编) David Oltrogge and Calvin Rensch (eds.). Two Studies in Middle American Comparative Linguistics (PDF). Publications in Linguistics, Publication Number 55. Summer Institute of Linguistics. 1977: 53–108. 
Sapir, Edward. The Hokan affinity of Subtiaba in Nicaragua. American Anthropologist. New Series. 1925, 27 (3,4): 402–435, 491–527. doi:10.1525/aa.1925.27.3.02a00040. 
Sicoli, Mark A. Oto-Manguean languages. (编) Philipp Strazny. Encyclopedia of Linguistics. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn. 2005: 797–800. 
Soustelle, Jacques. La familia Otomí-Pame del México central. Sección de Obras de Historia. Nilda Mercado Baigorria (trans.) Translation of: "La famille Otomí-Pame du Mexique central", doctoral thesis. México, D.F.: Centro de Estudios Mexicanos y Centroamericanos, Fondo de Cultura Económica. 1993 [1937]. ISBN 968-16-4116-7 (西班牙语). : Suárez, Jorge A. El tlapaneco como lengua Otomangue (MS). México, D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México. 1977 (西班牙语). 
Suárez, Jorge A. The Mesoamerican Indian Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1983. ISBN 0-521-22834-4. 
Longacre, Robert E. Systemic Comparison and Reconstruction. (编) Norman A. McQuown (Volume ed.). Handbook of Middle American Indians, Vol. 5: Linguistics. R. Wauchope (General Editor). Austin: University of Texas Press. 1968: 117–159. ISBN 0-292-73665-7. OCLC 277126. 
Longacre, Robert E. On Linguistic Affinities of Amuzgo. International Journal of American Linguistics. 1966, 32 (1): 46–49. doi:10.1086/464878. 
Josserand, J. Kathryn; Winter, Marcus; Hopkins, Nicholas (eds.). Essays in Otomanguean Culture History. Nashville, Tennessee: Vanderbilt University Publications in Anthropology. 1984. 

外部連結[编辑]

Template:Oto-Manguean languages英语Template:Oto-Manguean languages
Template:Mesoamerican families英语Template:Mesoamerican families

  1. ^ Evidence for this grouping has never been published.