西班牙征服阿兹特克帝国

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西班牙征服阿兹特克帝国,又称西班牙-阿兹特克战争(1519-1521),是西班牙殖民美洲的过程中最重要的战役之一。这一场战役之后西班牙殖民者成功镇压了阿兹特克人,并占领了今日墨西哥中部地区,但并未征服整个现代墨西哥地区。

自从哥伦布发现美洲大陆、并在那里建立了数个殖民据点之后,在西班牙王室的授权下,殖民者以殖民据点为根据地,四处派出远征队,发现、征服并且殖民新领地。1519年2月,西班牙殖民者在埃尔南·科尔特斯的率领下从墨西哥湾登陆,向阿兹特克前进,在此之前,科尔特斯没有任何军事经验。然而,阿兹特克人却将他们请进了首都特諾奇蒂特蘭。但西班牙人却软禁了皇帝蒙特祖马二世,向阿兹特克人勒索黄金。但随后被愤怒的阿兹特克人击败,被迫逃亡到与阿兹特克敌对的国家特拉斯卡拉寻求庇护。一年之后,在特拉斯卡拉、森波阿拉等与阿兹特克敌对国家的帮助下,科尔特斯再次攻打阿兹特克,在1521年8月13日以沉重地代价攻陷了特诺奇提特兰,将其夷为平地,改建为墨西哥城。

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参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Thomas, Hugh.Conquest: Montezuma, Cortes, and the Fall of Old Mexico, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993), 528-529.
  2. ^ Thomas, Hugh.Conquest: Montezuma, Cortes, and the Fall of Old Mexico, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993), 528-529.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Clodfelter 2017, p. 32.
  4. ^ Diaz, B., 1963, The Conquest of New Spain, London: Penguin Books, ISBN 0140441239: states that Cortes's men lost all the artillery they had initially arrived with during La Noche Triste.
  5. ^ Bernard Grunberg, "La folle aventure d'Hernan Cortés", in L'Histoire n°322, July–August 2007: states that Cortes arrived in Mexico with 15 cannons, before acquiring the forces of Pánfilo de Narváez.

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  • Brandt, Anthony. "Perfect storm at Tenochtitlan 1521: How Cortes's band of hidalgos destroyed the Mexica Empire." MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History (2014): 58.
  • Daniel, Douglas A. "Tactical Factors in the Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs." Anthropological Quarterly英语Anthropological Quarterly (1992): 187–94.
  • Raudzens, George. "So Why Were the Aztecs Conquered, and What Were the Wider Implications? Testing Military Superiority as a Cause of Europe's Pre-Industrial Colonial Conquests." War in History (1995): 87–104.
  • Townsend, Camilla. Malintzin's Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006.
  • White, John Manchip. "Cortes and the Downfall of the Aztec Empire: A Study in a Conflict of Cultures." The Hispanic American Historical Review英语The Hispanic American Historical Review (1972): 467–68.

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