毒品戰爭

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在毒品戰爭中,美國大概花了每年五億美元給予哥伦比亚,用來打擊毒贩FARC恐怖分子[1][2][3][4][5]

毒品戰爭,是美國主要政治術語[6][7],常用於表示美國聯邦政府對於毒品的防制而做出軍事支援英语military aid,和軍事干預,及減少非法藥品交易英语Illegal drug trade的行動。[8][9]

這一舉措包括一套旨在阻止違法生產,分配和消費的藥物政策對於精神药物的政策並且參與政府联合国的對策。這個詞在1971年6月18日 由美国总统理查德·尼克松發表的新聞發布會不久之後普及—尼克松總統出版了尼克松總統給藥物濫用預防和控制大會的一個特別信息, 宣布吸毒為“第一公敵”。他向國會發出的這個消息包括關於將更多的聯邦資源用於“預防新的吸毒者和康復上癮者”的文本,但這部分並不像“毒品戰爭”一樣受到公眾的重視。[10][11][12] 不過,在此之前兩年,尼克松已經正式宣布了“毒品戰爭”,旨在消除,阻截和監禁。[13]

主張結束“毒品戰爭”的非營利組織Drug Policy Alliance英语Drug Policy Alliance估計美國每年為這些舉措花費510億美元。[14][15] [16][17][18][19][20]

2011年6月, 全球藥物政策委員會英语Global Commission on Drug Policy發表了關於毒品戰爭的批評性報告,報告中宣稱:“全球毒品戰爭已經失敗,對世界各地的個人和社會造成破壞性後果。麻醉品单一公约開始五十年後,尼克松總統發表美國政府毒品戰爭後的幾年,迫切需要國家和全球藥物管制政策的基本改革。"[21] 該報告被反對藥物普遍合法化的組織所批評。[18]

歷史[编辑]

另見[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Colombia Program At-A-Glance (PDF). usaid.gov. United States Agency for International Development. [October 20, 2015]. 
  2. ^ Bennett, Brian. U.S. can't justify its drug war spending, reports say. Los Angeles Times. June 9, 2011. 
  3. ^ Drug War Clock. DrugSense (December 31, 1995).
  4. ^ Vulliamy, Ed. How a big US bank laundered billions from Mexico's murderous drug gangs. The Guardian (London). April 3, 2011. 
  5. ^ Congress: US Wasting Billions in War on Drugs – Pair of reports blast counter-narcotics spending in Latin America. Newser.com.
  6. ^ http://www.npr.org/2016/03/27/472023148/legalize-all-drugs-the-risks-are-tremendous-without-defining-the-problem
  7. ^ "(And) Richard Nixon was the one who coined the phrase, 'war on drugs.'"
  8. ^ Cockburn and St. Clair, 1998: Chapter 14
  9. ^ Bullington, Bruce; Alan A. Block. A Trojan horse: Anti-communism and the war on drugs. Crime, Law and Social Change (Springer Netherlands). March 1990, 14 (1): 39–55. ISSN 1573-0751. doi:10.1007/BF00728225. 
  10. ^ Richard Nixon: Special Message to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control.. 
  11. ^ Nixon Calls War on Drugs. The Palm Beach Post. June 18, 1971 [October 13, 2012]. 
  12. ^ Dufton, Emily. The War on Drugs: How President Nixon Tied Addiction to Crime. The Atlantic. March 26, 2012 [October 13, 2012]. 
  13. ^ Payan, Tony (2013). A War that Can’t Be Won. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.
  14. ^ Drug War Statistics. Drug Policy Alliance. [February 25, 2014]. 
  15. ^ On May 13, 2009, Gil Kerlikowske—the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)—signaled that the Obama administration did not plan to significantly alter drug enforcement policy, but also that the administration would not use the term "War on Drugs", because Kerlikowske considers the term to be "counter-productive".
  16. ^ Fields, Gary. White House Czar Calls for End to 'War on Drugs'. The Wall Street Journal. May 14, 2009 [May 14, 2009]. 
  17. ^ ONDCP's view is that "drug addiction is a disease that can be successfully prevented and treated... making drugs more available will make it harder to keep our communities healthy and safe".
  18. ^ 18.0 18.1 Global Commission on Drug Policy Offers Reckless, Vague Drug Legalization Proposal, Institute for Behavior and Health, Inc, July 12, 2011. (PDF).
  19. ^ One of the alternatives that Kerlikowske has showcased is the drug policy of Sweden, which seeks to balance public health concerns with opposition to drug legalization. The prevalence rates for 可卡因 use in Sweden are barely one-fifth of those in Spain, the biggest consumer of the drug.
  20. ^ Sweden's tough drug laws leave addicts behind. The Local. April 10, 2014 [September 10, 2014]. 
  21. ^ War on Drugs. The Global Commission on Drug Policy. 2011: 24. 

延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • Johann Hari. Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs. London, New York: Bloomsbury. 2015. ISBN 978-1-620-408902. 
  • Michael Blanchard; Gabriel J. Chin. Identifying the Enemy in the War on Drugs: A Critique of the Developing Rule Permitting Visual Identification of Indescript White Powders in Narcotics Prosecutions. American University Law Review. 1998, (47): 557. SSRN 1128945. 
  • Daniel Burton-Rose, The Celling of America: An Inside Look at the U.S. Prison Industry. Common Courage Press, 1998.
  • Stephanie R. Bush-Baskette, "The War on Drugs as a War on Black Women," in Meda Chesney-Lind and Lisa Pasko (eds.), Girls, Women, and Crime: Selected Readings. SAGE, 2004.
  • Gabriel Chin. Race, the War on Drugs and the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction. Gender, Race & Justice. 2002, (6): 253. SSRN 390109. 
  • Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press. New York: Verso, 1998.
  • Mitchell Earlywine, Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Kathleen J. Frydl, The Drug Wars in America, 1940-1973. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
  • Kenneth B. Nunn. Race, Crime and the Pool of Surplus Criminality: Or Why the War on Drugs Was a War on Blacks. Gender, Race & Justice. 2002, (6): 381. 
  • Tony Payan, "A War that Can’t Be Won." Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press, 2013.
  • Preston Peet, Under the Influence: The Disinformation Guide to Drugs. The Disinformation Company, 2004.
  • Thomas C. Rowe, Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole. Binghamton, NY: Haworn Press, 2006.
  • Eric Schneider, "The Drug War Revisited," Berfrois, November 2, 2011.
  • Peter Dale Scott and Jonathan Marshall, Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1911.
  • Dominic Streatfeild, Cocaine: An Unauthorized Biography. Macmillan, 2003.
  • Douglas Valentine, The Strength of the Wolf: The Secret History of America's War on Drugs. New York: Verso, 2004.

政府及非政府組織報告[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]

http://www.drugpolicy.org/facts/new-solutions-drug-policy/brief-history-drug-war-0 http://www.thewarondrugs.net/ https://web.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/paradox/htele.html

影音[编辑]