本页使用了标题或全文手工转换

美国海岸警卫队

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索
美国海岸警卫队
US-CoastGuard-Seal.svg

存在時期 1970年8月4日至今(由美國海關税收局發展而來) (225 年)[1]
或者
1915年1月28日至今(“美國海關緝私局”和“美國救生服務局”正式合并,形成现有的“美国海岸警卫队”)
(100 年, 6 月)[1]
國家  美國
種類 海岸巡防队
功能 海岸防御, 海事执法
規模 行政員工: 8,722
現役軍人:42,190
預備役軍人:7,899
輔助部隊:32,156
244 快艇
1,850 船艦
205 飛機[2][3]
直屬 美国国土安全部 (2003–present)[4]
美国运输部 (1967–2003)[4]
美国财政部 (1946–1967)[5]
美国海军部 (1941–1946)[6]
Seal of the United States Department of the Treasury (1789-1968).png 美国财政部 (1919–1946)[7]
美国海军部 (1917–1919)[8]
Seal of the United States Department of the Treasury (1789-1968).png 美国财政部 (1915-1917)[9][Note 1]
格言 Semper Paratus
Colors 白色海軍藍海軍紅[10]             
進行曲 Semper Paratus
參與戰役 美法沖突
1812年戰爭
塞米諾爾戰爭
美墨戰爭
南北戰爭
美西戰爭
第一次世界大戰
第二次世界大戰
韓戰
越戰
海龍任務
波斯灣戰爭
伊拉克戰爭
反恐戰爭
打撃走私
嘉獎 總統榮譽勛章
指挥官
現任指揮官 司令:Robert J. Papp上將
副司令:Sally Brice-O'Hara中將
總軍士長:Michael P. Leavitt
佩章
臂章 CGMark W.svg
舰旗 Ensign of the United States Coast Guard.svg
军旗 Flag of the United States Coast Guard.svg
飛機
直昇機

HH / MH-60 J/T Jayhawk英语HH-60 Jayhawk

HH / MH-65 C/D Dolphin英语HH-65C Dolphin
巡邏機

HC-130 H/J Hercules英语Lockheed HC-130

HU-25 A/C Guardian

HC-144A Ocean Sentry英语HC-144A Ocean Sentry
運輸機

VC-37A Long Range VIP Aircraft

VC-143 Medium Range VIP Aircraft英语Bombardier Challenger 600
Flag of the United States.svg·美國軍事
Emblem of the United States Department of the Army.svg 美国陆军
US Army
Seal of the United States Department of the Navy.svg 美国海军
US Navy
Seal of the US Air Force.svg 美国空军
US Air Force
USMC logo.svg 美国海军陆战队
US Marine Corps
USCG W.svg 美国海岸警卫队
US Coast Guard
USCGC Tornado (WPC-14) commissioning.jpg

美國海岸防衛隊英语United States Coast Guard缩写USCG)是美國軍隊的一支,亦是美國七個紀律部隊其中一員。海岸防衛隊作為海事軍隊,專責處理各類海事執法事宜(職權涵蓋12領海國際水域)及執行聯邦管制規定,地位特殊。和平時期部隊受國土安全部管轄,如有需要美國總統可下令部隊移交美國海軍部指揮,國會亦有權在戰時下達相同命令。

美國首任美國財政部長亞歷山大‧漢彌爾頓早於1790年8月4日創立美國海關緝私局(United States Revenue Cutter Service),亦即後來的海岸防衛隊,因此部隊視己為美國最悠久的海航部門。截至2009年8月,部隊一共有約42,000名男女在役、7,500名預備役、30,000名輔助人員及7,700個全職行政員工[11]

海岸防衛隊的司法權有別於其他四個軍種,部隊受《美國法典》第10章以及相關典藉(第6、14、19、三十三、46章等等)監管。正因如此,基於美國法典第14章,部隊可聽命於國防部或直接奉總統令履行軍事任務。

部隊常務為確保海事安全、執行海事保安及管理海務事宜,法典第六章明文寫有十一個部隊法定任務[12]

防衛隊格言為拉丁文 「Semper Paratus」,寓意「隨時就緒」(英语譯文:Always Ready)。

職責[编辑]

美國海岸防衛隊基本職責有三,細分為11個法定任務。基本職責為海事安全、海事保安及管理海務事宜。而11個法定任務則可分為國土安全任務和傳統任務兩大類[12]

  • 傳統任務有海事安全、搜索及拯救、協助導航、海洋生態資源(漁政執法)、海洋環境保護及海冰事務。
  • 國土安全任務包括港口、水路及海岸保安(PWCS),毒品及移民查禁、防衛預備和其他執法行動。

概觀[编辑]

美國早期歷史並沒有專責海上事務的組織,後來考量有關機關間權責不清,致無法有效執行聯邦任務,才由五個聯邦機關合併組成,他們分別是緝私船隊(Revenue Cutter Service)、海上救生隊(Life Saving Service)、航務局(Bureau of Navigation)、輪船檢查局(Steamboat Inspection Service)及燈塔局(Lighthouse Service),現在的美國海岸防衛隊傳承各原單位特有精神,成為具多元執行任務,且係唯一被國會授權於和平時期(peace time)扮演執法角色的武裝團隊,也是國家在陸、海、空及陸戰隊以外的第五個武裝力量,肩負國土防衛之責任。其組織整併沿革概可分為以下幾個重要階段:

  • 1790年:在財政部下的水陸關稅隊(Revenue Marine)。
  • 1863年:成立緝私船隊(Revenue Cutter Service)。
  • 1915年:緝私船隊與1848年成立的海上救生隊(Life Saving Service)合併,設置海岸防衛隊(the Coast Guard)。
  • 1939年:將燈塔局(Lighthouse Service)併入。
  • 1946年:將輪船檢查局(Steamboat Inspection Service)併入。
  • 1967年:海岸防衛隊移屬運輸部(Department of Transportation)。
  • 2003年:海岸防衛隊移屬國土安全部(Department of Homeland Security)。

相關條目[编辑]

注釋[编辑]

  1. ^ Prior to the formation of the U.S. Coast Guard by merger of the U.S. Revenue Cutter Service and the U.S. Life-Saving Service in 1915, the Revenue Cutter Service had been under the control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury from its creation in 1790. The U.S. Life-Saving Service dated from 1871 and was also under the control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 When was the Coast Guard established?. Coast Guard History: Frequently Asked Questions. Coast Guard Historian's Office. 13 July 2013. 
  2. ^ Coast Guard Snapshot 2012 (PDF). United States Coast Guard. [3 February 2013]. 
  3. ^ Homeland Security Budget-in-Brief Fiscal Year 2009 (PDF). United States Department of Homeland Security. 53. 2009. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 United States Coast Guard. Daily Chronology of Coast Guard History. United States Department of Homeland Security. "2003 - Administrative control of the Coast Guard transferred to the newly created Department of Homeland Security from the Department of Transportation, where it had served since 1 April 1967." 
  5. ^ United States Coast Guard. Timeline of Coast Guard Organizational History. United States Department of Homeland Security. [18 January 2014]. "1 April 1967: Executive Order 16781 transferred the Coast Guard from the Treasury Department to the newly-formed Department of Transportation." 
  6. ^ United States Coast Guard. Timeline of Coast Guard Organizational History. United States Department of Homeland Security. [18 January 2014]. "1 November 1941: President Roosevelt's Executive Order 8929 transferred the Coast Guard to Navy Department control. In compliance with Executive Order 9666, the Coast Guard returned to Treasury Department control." 
  7. ^ United States Coast Guard. Timeline of Coast Guard Organizational History. United States Department of Homeland Security. [18 January 2014]. "28 August 1919: Coast Guard reverted to Treasury Department after President Wilson signed Executive Order 3160." 
  8. ^ United States Coast Guard. Timeline of Coast Guard Organizational History. United States Department of Homeland Security. [18 January 2014]. "6 April 1917: With the declaration of war against Germany the Coast Guard was transferred by Executive Order to the control of the Navy Department." 
  9. ^ An Act To create the Coast Guard by combining therein the existing Life-Saving Service and Revenue-Cutter Service. January 1915 [8 September 2013]. "Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives o the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there shall be established in lieu of the existing Revenue-Cutter Service and the Life-Saving Service, to be composed of those two existing organizations, with the existing offices and positions and the incumbent officers and men of those two services, the Coast Guard, which shall constitute a part of the military forces of the United States and which shall operate under the Treasury Department in time of peace and operate as a part of the Navy, subject to the orders of the Secretary of the Navy, in time of war or when the President shall so direct. When subject to the Secretary of the Navy in time of war the expense of the Coast Guard shall be paid by the Navy Department; Provided, That no provision of this Act shall be construed as giving any officer of either the Coast Guard or the Navy, military or other control at any time over any vessel, officer, or man of the other service except by direction of the President." 
  10. ^ U.S. Coast Guard Heraldry. United States Coast Guard. April 2011: 3-1. 
  11. ^ Coast Guard Official 'Snapshot' webpage
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 § 468
  • Coast Guardsman's Manual / George Krietemeyer - Naval Institute Press, 2000 - ISBN 1-55750-468-7

外部連結[编辑]