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美国的语言

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美利堅合眾國
Tree map of languages in the United States.png
主要語言 英語 80%
西班牙語 12.4%
原住民語言 納瓦荷語切羅基語達科他語英语Dakota language拉科塔語英语Lakota language西阿帕奇語英语Western Apache language克勒斯語英语Keresan languages霍皮語英语Hopi language祖尼語英语Zuni language奧傑布瓦語奧哈姆語英语O'odham language [1][2]
主要移民語言 英語西班牙語漢語法語他加祿語越南語阿拉伯語韓國語
常见鍵盤布局
QWERTY
KB United States-NoAltGr.svg

美国最广泛的语言是英语,但美國聯邦政府並沒有設有官方語言。历史上存在过很多语言。其他有美国本土的语言,也有来自欧洲、亚洲等地区的语言。目前美国所使用的语言约有430种,其中有176种土著语言。其余绝大多数是由殖民者带来,还有个别语言是在美国诞生的,如克里奥尔语美国手语

人口普查数据[编辑]

据2016年美国社区调查,美国人口调查局核准,在美国本土超过10万人使用的语言有:[3][4][5][6][7]

  1. 只使用英语 229,673,150
  2. 西班牙语 40,489,813
  3. 汉语普通話粤语闽南语客家语吳語)3,372,930
  4. 他加祿語伊洛卡诺语米沙鄢語支)1,701,960
  5. 越南语 1,509,994
  6. 阿拉伯语 1,231,098
  7. 法语 1,216,668
  8. 朝鮮語 1,088,788
  9. 俄语 909,374
  10. 德语 905,691
  11. 海地克里奧爾語 856,009
  12. 印地语 810,877
  13. 葡萄牙語 767,210
  14. 意大利语 576,154
  15. 波兰语 539,151
  16. 乌尔都语 474,481
  17. 日语 464,535
  18. 波斯语 438,448
  19. 古吉拉特语 407,520
  20. 泰盧固語 365,566
  21. 孟加拉語 324,008
  22. 壯侗語 307,442
  23. 希腊语 288,255
  24. 旁遮普語 287,491
  25. 泰米尔语 273,332
  26. 亚美尼亚语 237,550
  27. 塞尔维亚-克罗地亚语 236,761
  28. 希伯来语 225,147
  29. 苗語 224,133
  30. 班圖語 224,133
  31. 高棉语 203,115
  32. 納瓦荷語 163,784
  33. 泰语 163,200
  34. 意第緒語 160,900
  35. 老挝语 140,900

官方语言现状[编辑]

美国没有官方语言,但目前作为通用语的是英语(美式英语)。

受到唯英语运动的影响,一些州国家已经通过立法,赋予正式地位的成英语。 截至2014年10月 (2014-10)出50个州中,有31个州已将英语作为官方语言,夏威夷将英语和夏威夷语作为正式的语言。

土著语言[编辑]

美洲土著语言[编辑]

土著语列表[编辑]

语言名 当地语言[8] 语族 使用人数

(占总数百分比)

能用英语交流的人数比[9]
Total 373 949 19.22%
Total (excl. Navajo) 203 127 (54.32) 15.82%
Navajo Diné bizaad Na-Dené 170 822 (45.68) 23.25%
Dakota Dakȟótiyapi Siouan 18 804 (5.03) 9.86%
Yupik Eskimo-Aleut 18 626 (4.98) 37.02%
Apache Ndee biyati' Na-Dené 14 012 (3.75) 3.53%
Keres Isolate 13 073 (3.50) 6.20%
Cherokee Tsalagi (ᏣᎳᎩ) Iroquoian 12 320 (3.29) 16.33%
Choctaw Chahta' Muskogean 10 368 (2.77) 23.44%
Zuni Shiwi'ma Isolate 9 432 (2.52) 14.22%
American Indian (Other) 8 888 (2.38) 16.73%
O'odham (Pima) Oʼodham ñiʼokĭ Uto-Aztecan 8 190 (2.19) 14.70%
Ojibwe (Chippewa) Anishinaabemowin Algic 6 986 (1.87) 11.28%
Hopi Hopilàvayi Uto-Aztecan 6 776 (1.81) 18.80%
Inupiat (Inupik) Iñupiatun Eskimo-Aleut 5 580 (1.49) 26.04%
Tewa Tanoan 5 123 (1.37) 13.80%
Muskogee (Creek) Mvskoke Muskogean 5 072 (1.36) 19.62%
Crow Apsáalooke Siouan 3 962 (1.06) 6.59%
Shoshoni Sosoni' da̲i̲gwape Uto-Aztecan 2 512 (0.67) 7.25%
Cheyenne Tsėhésenėstsestȯtse Algic 2 399 (0.64) 3.21%
Tiwa Tanoan 2 269 (0.61) 3.22%
Towa (Jemez) Tanoan 2 192 (0.59) 27.65%
Inuit (Eskimo) Eskimo-Aleut 2 168 (0.58) 25.46%
Blackfoot Siksiká (ᓱᖽᐧᖿ) Algic 1 970 (0.53) 11.02%
Sahaptin Ichishkíin sɨ́nwit Plateau Penutian 1 654 (0.44) 6.17%
Paiute Uto-Aztecan 1 638 (0.44) 11.78%
Athapascan Na-Dené 1 627 (0.44) 19.55%
Ute Núu-'apaghapi Uto-Aztecan 1 625 (0.43) 5.23%
Mohawk Kanien’kéha' Iroquoian 1 423 (0.38) 11.67%
Seneca Onödowága Iroquoian 1 353 (0.36) 11.23%
Winnebago Hocąk Siouan 1 340 (0.36) 6.27%
Kiowa Cáuijògà Tanoan 1 274 (0.34) 9.58%
Aleut Unangam tunuu Eskimo-Aleut 1 236 (0.33) 19.01%
Salish Salishan 1 233 (0.33) 22.87%
Gwich’in (Kuchin) Gwich’in Na-Dené 1 217 (0.33) 25.82%
Kickapoo Kiwikapawa Algic 1 141 (0.31) 41.72%
Arapaho Hinónoʼeitíít Algic 1 087 (0.29) 1.20%
Tlingit Lingít Na-Dené 1 026 (0.27) 8.19%
Siberian Yupik (SLI Yupik) Sivuqaghmiistun Eskimo-Aleut 993 (0.27) 39.48%
Passamaquoddy Peskotomuhkat Algic 982 (0.26) 6.11%
Comanche Nʉmʉ tekwapʉ Uto-Aztecan 963 (0.26) 10.59%
Cree Nēhiyawēwin Algic 951 (0.25) 8.73%
Menominee Omāēqnomenew Algic 946 (0.25) 39.64%
Nez Perce Niimiipuutímt Plateau Penutian 942 (0.25) 12.10%
Potawatomi Bodéwadmi Algic 824 (0.22) 9.95%
Hidatsa Hidatsa Siouan 806 (0.22) 4.47%
Mesquakie (Fox) Meshkwahkihaki Algic 727 (0.19) 22.15%
Karok Káruk Isolate 700 (0.19) 5.43%
Pomo Pomoan 648 (0.17) 14.81%
Chinook Jargon Chinuk wawa Creole 644 (0.17) 17.70%
Oneida Oneyota'aaka Iroquoian 527 (0.14) 58.63%
Yurok Puliklah Algic 491 (0.13) 1.63%
Cocopah Kwikapa Yuman 483 (0.13) 22.77%
Hualapai Hwalbáy Yuman 458 (0.12) 4.80%
Omaha Umoⁿhoⁿ Siouan 457 (0.12) 1.97%
Chiricahua Ndee bizaa Na-Dené 457 (0.12)
Jicarilla Abáachi mizaa Na-Dené 455 (0.12) 14.51%
Yaqui Yoem noki Uto-Aztecan 425 (0.11) 10.12%
Yokuts Yokutsan 407 (0.11) 27.27%
Mono Mono Uto-Aztecan 349 (0.09)
Mohave Hamakhav Yuman 330 (0.09) 6.36%
Luiseño Cham'teela Uto-Aztecan 327 (0.09) 4.28%
Shawnee Sawanwa Algic 321 (0.09) 6.23%
Maidu (NE Maidu) Májdy Maiduan 319 (0.09) 6.90%
Ottawa Nishnaabemwin Algic 312 (0.08) 10.90%
Algonquin Anicinâbemowin Algic 288 (0.08) 19.79%
Okanogan Nsəlxcin Salishan 284 (0.08) 10.92%
Osage Wazhazhe ie Siouan 260 (0.07) 20.38%
Wichita Kirikirʔi:s Caddoan 242 (0.06) 16.12%
Onondaga Onǫda’gegá Iroquoian 239 (0.06) 2.93%
Mi'kmaq (Micmac) Míkmawísimk Algic 230 (0.06) 10.87%
Digueño (Ipai-Kumiai-Tipai) Yuman 228 (0.06) 60.96%
Washo Wá:šiw ʔítlu Isolate 227 (0.06) 9.69%
Miwok Miwok Utian 216 (0.06)
Lushootseed (Puget Salish) Xʷəlšucid Salishan 207 (0.06) 47.83%
Kutenai Ktunaxa Isolate 200 (0.05) 32.50%
Miccosukee Mikisúkî Muskogean 188 (0.05) 22.87%
Tuscarora Ska:rù:rę' Iroquoian 179 (0.05) 10.06%
Makah Qʷi·qʷi·diččaq Wakashan 176 (0.05) 30.11%
Coeur d'Alene Snchitsuʼumshtsn Salishan 174 (0.05)
Hupa Na:tinixwe Na-Dené 174 (0.05)
Quechan (Yuma) Kwtsaan Yuman 172 (0.05) 31.98%
Miami Myaamia Algic 168 (0.04) 50.60%
Alabama Albaamo innaaɬiilka Muskogean 165 (0.04) 20.00%
Delaware Lënape / Lunaapeew Algic 146 (0.04) 25.34%
Clallam Nəxʷsƛ̕ay̕əmúcən Salishan 146 (0.04) 1.37%
Penobscot (E Abenaki) Panawahpskek Algic 144 (0.04) 5.56%
Yavapai Yuman 139 (0.04)
Cahuilla Ivia Uto-Aztecan 139 (0.04)
Ponca Paⁿka Siouan 131 (0.04) 6.87%
Quinault Kʷínaył Salishan 128 (0.03)
Deg Xinag (Ingalit) Degexit’an Na-Dené 127 (0.03)
Pawnee Paári Caddoan 122 (0.03) 16.39%
Haida X̱aat Kíl Isolate 118 (0.03) 19.49%
Cowlitz Stl'pulimuhkl Salishan 110 (0.03) 82.73%
Mandan Nų́ʔetaːre Siouan 104 (0.03) 38.46%
Arikara Sáhniš Caddoan 103 (0.03)
Klamath Maqlaqs Plateau Penutian 95 (0.03) 27.37%
Havasupai Havasu’baaja Yuman 90 (0.02) 52.22%
Chitimacha Sitimaxa Isolate 89 (0.02) 21.35%
Abenaki (W Abenaki) Wôbanakiôdwawôgan Algic 86 (0.02)
Kwak'wala (Kwakiutl) Kwak'wala Wakashan 85 (0.02) 24.71%
Tututni (Rogue River) Dotodəni Na-Dené 84 (0.02)
Iroquois Iroquoian 76 (0.02)
Michif (French Cree) Michif Creole 75 (0.02) 70.67%
Tsimshian Sm'algyax Tsimshianic 68 (0.02)
Achumawi Palaihnihan 68 (0.02)
Chiwere Jíwere Siouan 60 (0.02)
Koasati Kowassá:ti Muskogean 59 (0.02) 6.78%
Koyukon Denaakkʼe Na-Dené 58 (0.02) 12.07%
Upper Chinook Kiksht Chinookan 58 (0.02) 10.34%
Caddo Hasí:nay Caddoan 51 (0.01) 23.53%
Kalapuya (Santiam) Kalapuyan 50 (0.01)
Gros Ventre (Atsina) Ahahnelin Algic 45 (0.01)
Tachi Yokutsan 45 (0.01) 57.78%
Maricopa Piipaash chuukwer Yuman 44 (0.01) 22.73%
Chumash S.hamala Chumashan 39 (0.01) 100.00%
Nomlaki Nomlāqa Wintuan 38 (0.01)
Konkow (NW Maidu) Koyoom k'awi Maiduan 32 100.00%
Tonkawa Tickanwa•tic Isolate 29
Wintu Wintʰu:h Wintuan 24
Spokane Npoqínišcn Salishan 20 40.00%
Ahtna Atnakenaege’ Na-Dené 18
Columbia (Sinkiuse) Nxaảmxcín Salishan 17
Atsugewi Atsugé Palaihnihan 15
Chemehuevi Nüwüvi Uto-Aztecan 15
Northern Paiute Numu Uto-Aztecan 12
Dena'ina (Tanaina) Dena’ina qenaga Na-Dené 11
Cupeño Kupangaxwicham Uto-Aztecan 11
Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka) Nuučaan̓uł Wakashan 10
Alutiiq (Gulf Yupik) Sugpiaq Eskimo-Aleut 8
Kansa Káⁿza Siouan 7
Siuslaw Šáayušła Isolate 6
Cayuga Gayogo̱hó:nǫ’ Iroquoian 6
Serrano Taaqtam Uto-Aztecan 5
Yuchi Tsoyaha Isolate 4

南岛语言[编辑]

夏威夷语[编辑]

萨摩亚语[编辑]

查莫罗语[编辑]

卡罗来纳语[编辑]

主要语言[编辑]

最先在美国使用的欧洲语言有英语德语荷兰语法语西班牙语。受加拿大魁北克影響,原本法语是早年移民的第二語言,後被西班牙语取代。

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ Siebens, J & T Julian. Native North American Languages Spoken at Home in the United States and Puerto Rico: 2006–2010. United States Census Bureau. December 2011.
  2. ^ Census Data Of USA. US Census Bureau. [17 August 2012]. (原始内容存档于October 20, 2012).  已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  3. ^ (U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2016)
  4. ^ English Language Unity Act of 2017. [August 2, 2017]. (原始内容存档于August 3, 2017).  已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  5. ^ American Fact-finder
  6. ^ Table 53. Languages Spoken At Home by Language: 2011 (PDF), Language use in the United States, August 2013 (U.S. Census Bureau), [February 19, 2016], (原始内容 (PDF)存档于February 5, 2016)  已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  7. ^ American FactFinder - Results. Factfinder.census.gov. (原始内容存档于May 19, 2016).  已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  8. ^ A language's endonym may not be available for a variety of possible reasons: The language in question encompasses multiple dialects with unique endonyms; The language in question is actually a language family; The language or community of speakers has a prohibition against writing the language; No documentation is immediately available; etc.
  9. ^ Respondents who reported speaking English less than "Very Well."