縮寫

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縮寫英语:abbreviation,来自拉丁语 brevis,意为“短”[1]),在语言学裡是一種詞語或短语的簡易形式,又称省略缩略语、缩写词。缩写大部分时候等同于简称,但它们之间有细微的差别。 广义的缩写囊括了元音缩合英语Crasis(Crasis,一种通过合并两个元音把多个词复合为一个词的现象)、首字母缩略词(Acronym)、字母词(Initialisms)和中略英语中略(Contraction)等概念,但在较为严格的分析当中可能会把他们排除或分别讨论。[2]:p167

缩写类型[编辑]

音素缩写[编辑]

首字母缩略语[编辑]

首字母缩略词,又称头字语[3],是英語法語里面常见的缩写类型。这种音素缩写会将缩略语以词的形式发音[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]。如:

字母词[编辑]

字母词也是一种首字母缩略词,但是一般将其按字母逐字发音[19]。如:

拼写简化[编辑]

拼写简化(Short form)只在书写上缩减,并不会改变词的读法。一部分拼写简化属于中略。这种缩写一般会在后面加一个点“.”.[2]:p167–170 [20]。如:

  • abbreviation → abbr.或abbrev.
  • Doctor → Dr.,
  • Company → Co.
  • building → bldg.

音节缩写[编辑]

截音词[编辑]

英语:截音法(英语:Clipping)是截取词语的一部分作为缩略语的方法,是一种音节缩写(英语:Syllabic abbreviation)。如:

  • telephone→ phone
  • examination → exam
  • mathematics → math
  • laboratory → lab
  • facsimile → fax
  • memorandum → memo
  • influenza → flu

一些短语的音节缩写[编辑]

一些缩略语由复合词或短语中截取一部分音节構成,这些缩略语也是典型的音节缩写。这种缩略语一般用于专有名词。

这种音节缩写容易跟混成词(英语:Portmanteau或Blend word)混淆,虽然两者的意义和读音来自两个以上的语素[21][22][23][24],但混成词并没有一个作为原型的短语。

例如:

与英語、法語相比,音节缩写在德語俄語比較常見。纳粹时期及之前的德国蘇聯為了新的官僚機構命名時,非常盛行使用音节缩写。如:

  • SchutzpolizistSchupo(德语,保护警察英语Schutzpolizei
  • Geheime Staats-PolizeiGestapo(德语,秘密国家警察,缩写音译为蓋世太保
  • Всесоюзный Ленинский Коммунистический Союз МолодёжиКомсомол(俄语,苏联共青团
  • Коммунистический интернационалКоминтерн(俄语,共产国际

后来的德國人,包括东德,仍然会使用音节缩写,如:

语素缩写[编辑]

语素是由词、短语中的语素構成缩略语的缩写方法。这是汉语日语里面最常见的缩写类型之一。由于汉语是非常典型的孤立语,其语素单位大部分时候与音节单位契合,所以往往也可以视为音节缩写。如:

  • 学 → 北大
  • 除文 → 掃盲
  • 民警
  • 洲联欧盟
  • 南亚国家联东盟
  • 维埃社会主义共和国盟 → 苏联
  • 產黨 → 中共
  • 国連(日语,联合国
  • 東大(日语,东京大学

汉语也会由从词、短语甚至句子中抽出相同的语素,与数词(或再加量词)構成缩略语。如:

  • 世界、人生、价值三观
  • 農業、工業、國防和科學技術的現代化四個現代化、四化
  • 始终代表中国先进社会生产力的发展要求、始终代表中国先进文化的前进方向、始终代表中国最广大人民的根本利益 → 三个代表

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ brevis/breve, brevis M – Latin is Simple Online Dictionary. www.latin-is-simple.com. [2018-03-29] (英语). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 New Hart's Rules: The handbook of style for writers and editors. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-861041-6. 
  3. ^ Merriam-Webster, Inc. Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, 1994. ISBN 0-87779-132-5. pp. 21–22:

    acronyms  A number of commentators (as Copperud 1970, Janis 1984, Howard 1984) believe that acronyms can be differentiated from other abbreviations in being pronounceable as words. Dictionaries, however, do not make this distinction because writers in general do not:

    "The powder metallurgy industry has officially adopted the acronym 'P/M Parts'"—Precision Metal Molding, January 1966.
    "Users of the term acronym make no distinction between those pronounced as words ... and those pronounced as a series of characters" —Jean Praninskas, Trade Name Creation, 1968.
    "It is not J.C.B.'s fault that its name, let alone its acronym, is not a household word among European scholars"—Times Literary Supp. 5 February 1970.
    "... the confusion in the Pentagon about abbreviations and acronyms—words formed from the first letters of other words"—Bernard Weinraub, N.Y. Times, 11 December 1978.

    Pyles & Algeo 1970 divide acronyms into "initialisms", which consists of initial letters pronounced with the letter names, and "word acronyms", which are pronounced as words. Initialism, an older word than acronym, seems to be too little known to the general public to serve as the customary term standing in contrast with acronym in a narrow sense.

  4. ^ "acronym". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1991), Oxford University Press. p. 12: "a word, usu[ally] pronounced as such, formed from the initial letters of other words (e.g. Ernie, laser, Nato)".
  5. ^ "acronym" "Cambridge Dictionary of American English", accessed October 5, 2008: "a word created from the first letters of each word in a series of words."
  6. ^ "acronym" "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language", accessed August 13, 2015: "1. A word formed by combining the initial letters of a multipart name, such as NATO from North Atlantic Treaty Organization or by combining the initial letters or parts of a series of words, such as radar from radio detecting and ranging. 2. Usage Problem An initialism. Usage Note: In strict usage, the term acronym refers to a word made from the initial letters or parts of other words, such as sonar from so(und) na(vigation and) r(anging). The distinguishing feature of an acronym is that it is pronounced as if it were a single word, in the manner of NATO and NASA. Acronyms are often distinguished from initialisms like FBI and NIH, whose individual letters are pronounced as separate syllables. While observing this distinction has some virtue in precision, it may be lost on many people, for whom the term acronym refers to both kinds of abbreviations."
  7. ^ "acronym" "Collins Dictionaries", accessed August 13, 2015: "a pronounceable name made up of a series of initial letters or parts of words; for example, UNESCO for the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization"
  8. ^ "acronym" "Cambridge Dictionaries Online", accessed August 13, 2015: "an abbreviation consisting of the first letters of each word in the name of something, pronounced as a word: AIDS is an acronym for 'Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome'."
  9. ^ "acronym" "Cambridge Dictionaries Online", accessed August 13, 2015: "Acronyms are words which are formed from the first letters of other words, and which are pronounced as full words."
  10. ^ "acronym" "Wordsmyth, the Priemier Educational Dictionary-Thesaurus", accessed August 13, 2015: "a type of abbreviation used as a word, formed by combining the initial letters (or initial parts) of words that make up a particular string. The pronunciation of an acronym is based on the typical rules of pronouncing words in a language and is not made up of the sounds of the names of individual letters. NASA is an acronym for 'National Aeronautics and Space Administration.' The abbreviations 'FBI' and 'DVD' are not acronyms, but 'AIDS,' 'FICA,' and 'PIN' are."
  11. ^ "acronym" "NetLingo, the Internet Dictionary", accessed August 13, 2015: "Derived from the first letters of a phrase, acronyms are meant to make the phrase easier to say and remember. With an acronym, the first letter of each word makes up a new word that is, in fact, pronounceable (for example, SNAFU is pronounced "sna-foo" and WOMBAT is pronounced "wahm-bat")."
  12. ^ "acronym". Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing (2012). Stedman. "A pronounceable word formed from the initial letters of each word or selected words in a phrase (e.g., AIDS)".
  13. ^ "acronym" "AES Pro Audio Reference", accessed August 13, 2015: "A word formed from the first letters of a name, such as laser for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, or by combining initial letters or parts of a series of words, such as radar for radio detecting and ranging. The requirement of forming a word is what distinguishes an acronym from an abbreviation (or initialism as it is also called). Thus modem [modulator-demodulator] is an acronym, and AES [Audio Engineering Society] is an abbreviation or initialism."
  14. ^ "The Correct Use of Acronyms and Initialisms" "Scribendi Proofreading Services", accessed August 13, 2015: "An acronym is a word formed from the initial letters of a name or phrase. It is pronounced as if it were a word. Examples of common acronyms include "SARS" (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and "UNICEF" (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund)"
  15. ^ "The Difference Between an Acronym and an Initialism" "Today I Found Out", accessed August 13, 2015: "An acronym is a word formed from the initial letters of a name or phrase. It is pronounced as if it were a word. Examples of common acronyms include "SARS" (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and "UNICEF" (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund)"
  16. ^ Crystal, David (1995). "Abbreviation". The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-55985-5. p. 120: Under the heading "Types of Abbreviation", this article separately lists initialisms and acronyms, describing the latter as "Initialisms pronounced as single words", but adds, "However, some linguists do not recognize a sharp distinction between acronyms and initialisms, but use the former term for both."
  17. ^ "The 10 Most Misunderstood Terms in IT" "TechTarget", accessed August 13, 2015: "An acronym is not any abbreviation, just one that forms a "sayable" word. Apart from that confusion, acronyms and other abbreviations cause confusion any time a reader is likely not to know what the spelled-out version is."
  18. ^ "initialism" "Online Etymology Dictionary", accessed August 13, 2015: "initialism (n.) word formed from the first letters of other words or a phrase, 1957, from initial (n.) + -ism. The distinction from acronym is not universally agreed-upon; in general, words such as NATO, where the letters form a word, are regarded as acronyms, those such as FBI, where the letters sound as letters, are initialisms. The use of acronym in entries in this dictionary that are technically initialisms is a deliberate error, because many people only know to search for all such words under 'acronym.'"
  19. ^ dGuide to the Third Edition of the OED. Oxford English Dictionary. 2010-08-19 [2012-12-19]. 
  20. ^ Allen, Robert (编). Full stop. Pocket Fowler's Modern English Usage 2nd. Oxford University Press. 2008. ISBN 9780191727078. 
  21. ^ What is a portmanteau morph?. LinguaLinks Library. 2003. (原始内容存档于2008-06-19). 
  22. ^ Thomas, David. An invitation to grammar. Summer Institute of Linguistics. Bangkok: Mahidol University: 9. 1983. 
  23. ^ Crystal, David. A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics 2nd. New York: Basil Blackwell: 237. 1985. 
  24. ^ Hartmann, R.R.K.; Stork, F.C. Dictionary of language and linguistics. London: Applied Science: 180. 1972. 

參見[编辑]