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超大類星體群

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超大類星體群(Large quasar group, LQG)是一群超大質量黑洞,被認為是已知宇宙的最大結構。

2013年1月11日,英國中央蘭開夏大學天文學者宣佈,發現超大類星體群,這是宇宙最大已知結構,是由73顆類星體組成,最窄直徑為14億光年,最寬尺寸為40億光年。這結構的存在似乎違背了宇宙論原則[1]宣佈者認為,理論而言,宇宙裏不應該存在著這麼龐大的結構。这已经超过了理论上宇宙結構的尺寸上限12億光年。[2]

超大類星體群列表

超大類星體群
LQG 发现日期 平均距离 尺寸 # 类星体数 备注
Webster LQG
(LQG 1)
1982 z=0.37 100Mpc 5 首先被发现的LQG,是當時已知的最大结构。[3][4][5]
Crampton-Cowley-Hartwick LQG
(LQG 2 , CCH LQG , Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 10)
1987 z=1.11 60Mpc 28 第二个被发现的LQG [3][5][6]
Clowes-Campusano LQG
(U1.28 , CCLQG , LQG 3)
1991 z=1.28
  • longest dimension: 630 Mpc
34 第三个被发现的LQG [3][7]
1995 z=1.9 120Mpc/h 10 发现者 Graham, Clowes, Campusano. [8][5][6]
1995 z=0.19 60Mpc/h 7 发现者 Graham, Clowes, Campusano; 这是一组7个西佛星系[8][5][6]
Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 1 1996 z=0.6 R= 96 Mpc/h 12 发现者 Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash. [5][6]
Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 2 1996 z=0.6 R= 111 Mpc/h 12 发现者 Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash. [5][6]
Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 3 1996 z=1.3 R= 123 Mpc/h 14 发现者 Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash. [5][6]
Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 4 1996 z=1.9 R= 104 Mpc/h 14 发现者 Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash. [5][6]
Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 5 1996 z=1.7 R= 146 Mpc/h 13 发现者 Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash. [5][6]
Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 6 1996 z=1.5 R= 94 Mpc/h 10 发现者 Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash. [5][6]
Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 7 1996 z=1.9 R= 92 Mpc/h 10 发现者 Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash. [5][6]
Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 8 1996 z=2.1 R= 104 Mpc/h 12 发现者 Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash. [5][6]
Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 9 1996 z=1.9 R= 66 Mpc/h 18 发现者 Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash. [5][6]
Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 11 1996 z=0.7 R= 157 Mpc/h 11 发现者 Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash. [5][6]
Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 12 1996 z=1.2 R= 155 Mpc/h 14 发现者 Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash. [5][6]
Newman LQG
(U1.54)
1998 z=1.54 150Mpc/h 21 发现者 P.R. Newman et al. 这个结构是平行的CCLQG,它的发现表明宇宙结构已经存在丝和空洞。[7][5]
Tesch-Engels LQG 2000 z=0.27 140Mpc/h 7 第一个X射线 LQG. [5]
U1.11 2011 z=1.11
  • longest dimension: 780 Mpc
38 [3][7]
Huge-LQG
(U1.27)
2012 z=1.27
  • characteristic size: 500 Mpc
  • longest dimension: 1240 Mpc
73 这是於2012年可觀測宇宙中已知的最大结构。[3][9]直到2013年發現武仙-北冕座長城[10][11][12]

參閱

參考文獻

  1. ^ Wall, Mike. Largest structure in universe discovered. Fox News. 2013-01-11. 
  2. ^ Clowes, Roger; Kathryn A. Harris, Srinivasan Raghunathan, Luis E. Campusano, Ilona K. Söchting And Matthew J. Graham. A structure in the early Universe at z ∼ 1.3 that exceeds the homogeneity scale of the R-W concordance cosmology. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. January 11, 2013. doi:10.1093/mnras/sts497. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Clowes, Roger G.; Harris, Kathryn A.; Raghunathan, Srinivasan; Campusano, Luis E.; Soechting, Ilona K.; Graham, Matthew J.; "A structure in the early universe at z ~ 1.3 that exceeds the homogeneity scale of the R-W concordance cosmology"; arXiv:1211.6256 ; Bibcode: 2012arXiv1211.6256C ; doi:10.1093/mnras/sts497 ; Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 11 January 2013
  4. ^ Webster, Adrian. The clustering of quasars from an objective-prism survey. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. May 1982, 199: 683–705 [14 January 2013]. 
  5. ^ 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 R.G.Clowes; "Large Quasar Groups - A Short Review"; 'The New Era of Wide Field Astronomy', ASP Conference Series, Vol. 232.; 2001; Astronomical Society of the Pacific; ISBN 1-58381-065-X ; Bibcode: 2001ASPC..232..108C
  6. ^ 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravtsov, Vladimir N. Lukash; "The search and investigation of the Large Groups of Quasars"; arXiv:astro-ph/9602090 ; Bibcode: 1996astro.ph..2090K ;
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 Clowes, Roger; Luis E. Campusano, Matthew J. Graham and Ilona K. S¨ochting. Two close Large Quasar Groups of size ∼ 350 Mpc at z ∼ 1.2 (PDF). Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 2001-09-01 [14 January 2013]. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Graham, M. J.; Clowes, R. G.; Campusano, L. E.; "Finding Quasar Superstructures"; Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 275, NO. 3/AUG1, P. 790, 1995 August; Bibcode: 1995MNRAS.275..790G
  9. ^ ScienceDaily, "Biggest Structure in Universe: Large Quasar Group Is 4 Billion Light Years Across", Royal Astronomical Society, 11 January 2013 (accessed 13 January 2013)
  10. ^ Horvath I., Hakkila J., and Bagoly Z. Possible structure in the GRB sky distribution at redshift two. 2014. 
  11. ^ Horvath I., Hakkila J., and Bagoly Z. The largest structure of the Universe, defined by Gamma-Ray Bursts. 2013. Bibcode:2013arXiv1311.1104H. arXiv:1311.1104. 
  12. ^ Universe's Largest Structure is a Cosmic Conundrum. discovery. 2013-11-19 [2013-11-22].  Authors list列表中的|first1=缺少|last1= (帮助)