A-4天鷹式攻擊機

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A-4(A4D)天鷹式
A-4M Skyhawks of VMA-214 in flight in the 1970s.jpg
類型 攻擊機
生產公司 道格拉斯飛行器公司
設計者 Ed Heinemann
首次飛行 1954年6月22日
服役 1956年10月
退役 1976年,美國海軍
1998年,美國海軍陸戰隊
使用狀態 仍然現役(美國以外)
主要用戶 美國海軍
其它用戶 美國海軍陸戰隊
生產數量 2,960架
單位造價 頭500架每架$860,000美元
衍生機型 A-4AR戰鷹式攻擊機
A-4G天鷹式攻擊機
A-4SU超級天鷹式攻擊機
一架在巴西航艦聖保羅號的A-4天鷹式

1952年,美國道格拉斯飛行器公司贏得合約為美國海軍與陸戰隊製造一款新的輕型噴射戰機,A-4天鷹式攻擊機英语:A-4 Skyhawk)是一架攻擊機,原型機為A4D,最初被設計用來做為美國海軍航空母艦之艦載機。於1954年首次飛行,至今已過六十載,在越南戰爭中扮演著關鍵的角色,亦參加過福克蘭戰爭、中東戰爭贖罪日戰爭,目前在世界各地僅剩數百架左右的A-4攻擊機正在服役。

簡介[编辑]

本來是以攻擊機為設計方向,並不是以戰鬥機設計出發及製造,但因為它的運動性能非常卓越且重量只有5.4公噸左右。所以也充作高級飛行員訓練機。與F-14雄貓或F-18大黃蜂等,做不分上下的練習戰鬥。美國海軍的空中特技表演團藍天使也曾使用過A-4來做特技表演。而在越南戰爭中,A-4曾以不攜帶對空武器的情況下,以火箭彈擊落了俄製米格式戰鬥機,而成為一段佳話。

原型機於1954年試飛成功,時至今日約五十年的歲月,所以種類繁多,目前還有許多國現役,而新加坡當局也擬定計畫把其空軍使用的A-4S型機,修改為A-4SU超級天鷹。

機體構型[编辑]

採單座、單發動機、三角型低單翼設計、進氣口位於機身兩側,機身前段右側設有空中受油管,能夠進行空中加油。

型號[编辑]

VA-81 A4D-2 on the USS Forrestal in 1962.
U.S. Navy A-4B (A4D-2)
A-4C landing on the USS Kitty Hawk in 1966.
RNZAF A-4K
TA-4F Skyhawk of VA-164 aboard the aircraft carrier USS Hancock in the early 1970s
A-4G of VF-805 takes a wire aboard Template:HMAS in 1980
Brazilian Navy AF-1 (A-4KU)
Naval Reserve A-4L of VA-203
A-4M of VMA-322
OA-4M of MAG-32 in 1990
Argentine Air Force A-4AR Fightinghawk

原廠生產變種[编辑]

XA4D-1:原型機(1962年之前的稱號)
YA4D-1(YA-4A, later A-4A):Flight test prototypes and pre-production aircraft.(1962年之前的稱號)
A4D-1:即A-4A(1962年之前的稱號)
A4D-2:即A-4B(1962年之前的稱號)
A4D-2N:即A-4C(1962年之前的稱號)
A4D-3:增加先進的航電版本,沒有建造。(1962年之前的稱號)
A4D-4:遠程版本,加上新設計的機翼;取消。
A4D-6:建議的版本,沒有建造。(1962年之前的稱號)
A-4A
Initial production version, 166 built
A-4B
Strengthened aircraft and added air-to-air refueling capabilities, improved navigation and flight control systems, provision for AGM-12 Bullpup missile, 542 built.
A-4C
Night/adverse weather version of A4D-2, with AN/APG-53A radar, autopilot, LABS low-altitude bombing system. Wright J65-W-20 engine with 8,200 lbf(36 kN) of takeoff thrust, 638 built.
A-4D
Designation not used to avoid confusion with the pre-1962 designation A4D.
A-4E
Major upgrade, including new Pratt & Whitney J52-P-6A engine with 8,400 lbf(37 kN) of thrust, strengthened airframe with two more weapon pylons (for a total of five), improved avionics, with TACAN, Doppler navigation radar, radar altimeter, toss-bombing computer, and AJB-3A low-altitude bombing system. Many later upgraded with J52-P-8 engine with 9,300 lbf(41 kN) thrust; 499 built.
A-4F
Refinement of A-4E with extra avionics housed in a hump on the fuselage spine (this feature later retrofitted to A-4Es and some A-4Cs) and more powerful J52-P-8A engine with 9,300 lbf(41 kN) of thrust, later upgraded in service to J52-P-408 with 11,200 lbf(50 kN), 147 built. Some served with Blue Angels acrobatic team from 1973 to 1986.
A-4G:該機型首先新建造了8架供澳大利亞皇家海軍使用,設計從A-4F作微小變化,使它們沒有駝峰狀凸起的航電位置。Subsequently, eight more A-4Fs were modified to this standard for the RAN. Significantly the A-4G were modified to carry four underwing Sidewinder AIM-9B missiles increasing their Fleet Defense capability.[1][2]
A-4H
90 aircraft for the Israeli Air Force based on the A-4F. Used 30 mm (1.18 in) DEFA cannon with 150 rpg in place of U.S. 20 mm (.79 in) guns. Later, some A-4Es later locally modified to this standard. Subsequently modified with extended jetpipes as protection against heat-seeking missiles.
A-4K
10 aircraft for Royal New Zealand Air Force. In the 1990s, these were upgraded under Project KAHU with new radar and avionics, provision for AGM-65 Maverick, AIM-9 Sidewinder, and GBU-16 Paveway II laser-guided bomb. The RNZAF also rebuilt an A-4C and 10 A-4Gs to A-4K standard.
A-4M Skyhawk II
Dedicated Marine version with improved avionics and more powerful J52-P-408a engine with 11,200 lbf(50 kN) thrust, enlarged cockpit, IFF system. Later fitted with Hughes AN/ASB-19 Angle Rate Bombing System (ARBS) with TV and laser spot tracker, 158 built.
A-4N
117 modified A-4Ms for the Israeli Air Force.
TA-4F
Conversion trainer – standard A-4F with extra seat for an instructor, 241 built.
TA-4G
two trainer versions of the A-4G built new, and two more modified from TA-4Fs.
TA-4H
25 trainer versions of the A-4H. Upgraded with more modern avionics, projected out of service date;2010.
TA-4J
Dedicated trainer version based on A-4F, but lacking weapons systems, and with down-rated engine, 277 built new, and most TA-4Fs were later converted to this configuration.
TA-4K
Four trainer versions of the above. A fifth was later assembled in NZ from spare parts.

Upgraded, modified and export variants[编辑]

TA-4E
two A-4Es modified as prototypes of a trainer version.
EA-4F
four TA-4Fs converted for ECM training.
A-4L
100 A-4Cs remanufactured for Marine Corps Reserves and Navy Reserve squadrons. Fitted with A-4F avionics (including the fuselage "hump") but retaining J-65 engine and three-pylon wing.[3]
OA-4M
23 TA-4Fs modified for Forward Air Control duties for the Marines in Vietnam.[4]
A-4P
Remanufactured A-4Bs sold to Argentine Air Force known as A-4B by the Argentines.
A-4Q
Remanufactured A-4Bs sold to Argentine Navy.
A-4Y
Provisional designation for A-4Ms modified with the ARBS. Designation never adopted by the U.S. Navy or U.S. Marine Corps.[5]
A-4AR Fightinghawk
36 A-4Ms refurbished for Argentina.
OA-4AR Fightinghawk
Refurbished two-seat training version for Argentina.[6]
A-4KU
30 modified A-4Ms for the Kuwaiti Air Force. Brazil purchased 20 of these second-hand and redesignated them AF-1. Now used by the Brazilian Navy on carrier duty.
CA-4F
A proposed variant for the Royal Canadian Navy to replace the retired F-2H3 Banshee on HMCS Bonaventure. Canada expressed little interest and so it was never placed in production.[7]
TA-4KU
three trainer versions of the above. Brazil purchased some of these second-hand and redesignated them AF-1A.
A-4PTM
40 A-4Cs and A-4Ls refurbished for Royal Malaysian Air Force, incorporating many A-4M features (PTM stands for Peculiar to Malaysia).[8]
TA-4PTM
Unique trainer version for Royal Malaysian Air Force. Converted from A-4C/L airframes with 28" fuselage plug and second cockpit, similar to TA-4F/J (PTM stands for Peculiar to Malaysia).[8]
A-4S
50 A-4Bs remanufactured for Republic of Singapore Air Force.
TA-4S
seven trainer versions of the above. Different from most TA-4 trainers with a common cockpit for the student and instructor pilot, these were essentially rebuilt with a 28英寸(710 mm) fuselage plug inserted into the front fuselage and a separate bulged cockpit (giving better all round visibility) for the instructor seated behind the student pilot.
A-4S-1
50 A-4Cs remanufactured for Republic of Singapore Air Force.
TA-4S-1
eight trainer versions of the above. These were designated as TA-4S-1 to set it apart from the earlier batch of seven airframes.
A-4SU Super Skyhawk
extensively modified and updated version of the A-4S-1, exclusively for the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF), fitted with a General Electric F404 non-afterburning turbofan engine, and modernized electronics.
TA-4SU Super Skyhawk
extensively modified and updated version of the TA-4S & TA-4S-1 to TA-4SU standard.
AF-1
Brazilian Navy designation applied to 23 A-4KU and TA-4KU aircraft acquired from the Kuwaiti Air Force.

武裝[编辑]

固定武裝為2門位於翼根處的20mm機砲,最多可掛載4000公斤武器。

藍天使 & Top Gun[编辑]

在1974年-1986年間,擔任美國海軍的藍天使特技飛行小組用機,並為海軍假想敵中隊(Top Gun)所採用,作為訓練學員用的假想敵機。

特殊改型[编辑]

以色列空軍的A-4攻擊機有尾管加長80公分

以色列空軍將A-4攻擊機的尾管加長80公分,以防止紅外線導引飛彈直接命中發動機。

服役國[编辑]

A-4攻擊機使用國包括美國、科威特、新加坡、巴西、以色列、紐西蘭、印尼、馬來西亞等。

1984年的紐西蘭空軍A-4
A-4攻擊機使用國
 阿根廷
 澳大利亚 -退役
 巴西
 印尼 -封存
 以色列2015/12/13-退役
 科威特
 马来西亚 -退役
 新西蘭
紐西蘭皇家空軍、A-4K,已退役
 新加坡
新加坡空軍、A-4S/TSU,2007年退役
 美國 -退役

A-4性能概況[编辑]

McDONNELL DOUGLAS A-4 SKYHAWK.png
  • 全長:12.22米
  • 全高:4.57米
  • 全寬:8.38米
  • 空重:4.750噸
  • 裝戰後重:8.318噸
  • 最大起飛重量:11.136噸
  • 引擎:J-52-P-408-A無後燃器渦輪噴射發動機,最大推力5.4噸
  • 最大時速:1,077公里/小時

相關資訊[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ "McDonnell Douglas A4G Skyhawk." Royal Australian Navy. Retrieved: 27 November 2015.
  2. ^ Elward 2000, p. 163.
  3. ^ Elward 2000, pp. 71–72.
  4. ^ "OA-4M." a4skyhawk.org/ A-4 Skyhawk Association. Retrieved: 21 November 2015.
  5. ^ Gann Wings of Fame No. 4 1996, p. 114.
  6. ^ "ASN Wikibase Occurrence # 153270." aviation-safety.net. Retrieved: 5 May 2013.
  7. ^ "Canada Skyhawk Proposal." a4skyhawk.org. Retrieved: 21 November 2015.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 "Royal Malaysian Air Force." a4skyhawk.org. Retrieved: 1 October 2012.