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弄蝶科

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弄蝶科
隐纹穀弄蝶(Pelopidas mathias)
隐纹穀弄蝶(Pelopidas mathias
科學分類
界: 動物界 Animalia
門: 節肢動物門 Arthropoda
綱: 昆蟲綱 Insecta
目: 鱗翅目 Lepidoptera
總科: 弄蝶總科 Hesperioidea
科: 弄蝶科 Hesperiidae
Latreille, 1809
模式種
弄蝶
Papilio comma
(Linnaeus, 1758)
亞科

弄蝶科Skipper學名Hesperiidae,在台灣又寫作挵蝶)是一類中小型蝴蝶。有3500餘種,除南極洲外世界各地皆可見,新熱帶界的品種最為多[1]。飛行快速、軌跡飄忽不定,常被他人誤認作。其觸角前端呈鉤狀,頭部寬大,體型矮胖,翅膀較細小,顏色多為暗淡,以淡褐色黃色為主,另外亦有少數色彩鮮明物種

分類[编辑]

根據Warren et al.(2009)基於弄蝶科物種的綜合分子和形態學數據而修訂出的最新分類[2],弄蝶科共有7個亞科,包括:


以往分類:

  • 紅臀弄蝶亞科 Pyrrhopyginae —— 今視作紅臀弄蝶族[3]
  • 大弄蝶亞科 Megathyminae —— 或大弄蝶科(Megathymidae),今歸入弄蝶亞科。中国学者认为大弄蝶在进化中最独特(体大多毛,头小胸大似蛾,触角端部椿状,不呈钩状,后足胫节只有一个距),为显示其亲缘关系和进化高低,因而它成為独立的科[4]
  • 美大弄蝶亞科 Aegialinae —— 今歸入弄蝶亞科
  • 地位未定分類[5]

腳註[编辑]

  1. ^ Ackery et al. (1999)(英文)
  2. ^ Warren, A. D., Ogawa, J. R. & Brower, A. V. Z. 2009. Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data. Systematic Entomology 34, 467-523.
  3. ^ Tree Of Life Web Porject及維基物種等
  4. ^ 寿建新, 周尧, 李宇飞. 《世界蝴蝶分类名录》. 陕西科学技术出版社. 2006. ISBN 7536936761 (中文(简体)‎). 
  5. ^ 英國自然歷史博物館資料庫等

參考文獻[编辑]

  • Evans, W. H., 1949. A catalogue of the Hesperiidae from Europe, Asia and Australia in the British Museum (Natural History). xix + 502pp., 53 pls. BMNH, London.
  • Lamas, G., 2004, Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera Volume 5A; Checklist: 4A; Hesperioidea-Papilionoidea. Assoc. Trop. Lep. Inc, Gainesville.
  • Warren, A.D. ; J.R. Ogawa & A.V.Z. Brower, 2008: Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies and circumscription of tribes in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea). Cladistics 24: 642-676.
  • Warren, A.D.; Ogawa, J.R.; Brower, A.V.Z. 2009: Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data. Systematic entomology, 34: 467-523.

附加參考[编辑]

  • P. Ackery, R. de Jong and R. I. Vane-Wright: The Butterflies: Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea. in Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology 4(35): 263-300 (ed. N. P. Kristensen). Berlin: de Gruyter. (1999)
  • Austin, G.T., 2008: Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: A new genus and species of Pyrginae. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 62 (1): 36-39.
  • Austin, G.T. & O.H.H. Mielke, 2007 : Hesperiidae of Rondônia, Brazil: Carystus, with descriptions of two new species (Hesperiidae: Hesperiiinae). Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 148: 1-13.
  • Austin, G.T. & P.J. DeVries, 2001: New Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) from Costa Rica. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology. 96: 1-8.
  • Bell, E.L., 1932: Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) of the Roraima and Duida expeditions, with descriptions of new species. American Museum novitates 555: 1-16. Full article: [1].
  • Bell, E.L., 1937: New genera and species of Neotropical Hesperiidae with notes on others (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). American Museum novitates 914: 1-17. Full article: [2].
  • Bell, E.L., 1937: A new species of Hesperiidae, and notes on others, from Panama (Lepidoptera-Rhopalocera). American Museum novitates 938: 1-7. Full article: [3].
  • Bell, E.L., 1938: A new genus and five new species of Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). American Museum novitates 1013: 1-11. Full article: [4].
  • Bell, E.L., 1940: A new genus and some new species of neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). American Museum Novitates 1064: 1-5. Full article: [5].
  • Bell, E.L., 1940: A new genus and some new species of Hesperiidae from Peru, in the Bassler Colection (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). American Museum Novitates 1094: 1-7. Full article: [6].
  • Bell, E.L., 1941: New species of Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). American Museum Novitates 1125: 1-10. Full article: [7].
  • Bell, E.L., 1942: New genera and new species of neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). American Museum novitates 1205: 1-9. Full article: [8].
  • Bell, E.L., 1947: New species and subspecies of neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). American Museum novitates 1330: 1-9. Full article: [9].
  • Bell, E.L., 1947: Atrytone singularis Herrich-Schäffer and the subspecies insolata Butler (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). American Museum novitates 1359: 1-5. Full article: [10].
  • Bell, E.L., 1948: A new genus and some new species and subspecies of American Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). American Museum novitates 1379: 1-23. Full article: [11].
  • Bell, E.L., 1949: Two new species of Telemiades and notes on some others (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). American Museum novitates 1385: 1-10. Full article: [12].
  • Bell, E.L., 1956: Descriptions of some new species of neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). American Museum novitates 1778: 1-13. Full article: [13].
  • Bell, E.L., 1959: Descriptions of some new species of neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). [2]. American Museum novitates 1962: 1-16. Full article: [14].
  • Bell, E.L. & A.S. Pinkus, 1934: New Hesperiidae from Trinidad and Peru (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). American Museum novitates 745: 1-6. Full article: [15]
  • Carneiro, E.; Mielke, O.H.H.; Casagrande, M.M. 2012: Head morphology of some Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera). Zootaxa, 3198: 1–28. Preview
  • Chiba, H.; Hsu, Y.-f.; Tsukiyama, H.; Lo, P.Y.; Chen, C.-r.; Wang, S.-m. 2009: Jinhaku Sonan’s skipper type collection deposited at Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Zootaxa, 2202: 48-58. Abstract & excerpt PDF
  • Cock, M.J.W. 2010: Observations on the biology of Afro–tropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) principally from Kenya. Part 1. Introduction and Coeliadinae. Zootaxa, 2547: 1–63. Preview
  • Devyatkin, A.L., 1997: A new species of Halpe Moore, 1878 from North Vietnam (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). Atalanta 28 (1/2): 121-124.
  • Devyatkin, A.L., 2000: Hesperiidae of Vietnam: 6. Two new species of the genera Suada de Nicéville, 1895 and Quedara Swinhoe, 1907 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Atalanta 31 (1/2): 193-197.
  • Devyatkin, A.L., 2000: Hesperiidae of Vietnam: 7. Contribution of the Hesperiidae fauna of the southern Vietnam (Lepidoptera). Atalanta 31 (1/2): 198-204.
  • Devyatkin, A.L., 2000: Hesperiidae of Vietnam: 8. Three new species of Celaenorrhinus Hübner, 1819, with notes on on the C. maculosa (C. & R. Felder[1867]) -oscula Evans, 1949 group (Lepidoptera:Hesperiidae). Atalanta 31 (1/2): 205-211.
  • Devyatkin, A.L., 2001: Hesperiidae of Vietnam: 9. Three new species and one new subspecies from the subfamily Pyrginae (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Atalanta 32 (3/4): 403-410.
  • Devyatkin, A.L., 2002: Hesperiidae of Vietnam: 10. A new species of Coladenia Moore [1881] (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Atalanta 33 (1-2): 123-125.
  • Devyatkin, A.L., 2002: Hesperiidae of Vietnam: 11. New taxa of the subfamily Hesperiinae (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Atalanta 33 (1-2): 127-135.
  • Devyatkin, A.L., 2003: Hesperiidae of Vietnam: 14. A new species of the genus Celaenorrhinus Hübner 1819 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Atalanta 34 (1/2): 115-118.
  • Devyatkin, A.L., 2007: Hesperiidae of Vietnam: 16. A new species and a new record of the Hesperiidae from Central Vietnam, with a revisional note on the genus Hidari Distant, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Atalanta 38 (3-4): 347-349.
  • Devyatkin, A.L., 2008: Hesperiidae of Vietnam: 17. A further new species of Coladenia Moore, [1881] (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). Atalanta 39 (1/4): 279-280.
  • Devyatkin, A.L., 2008: Hesperiidae of Vietnam: 18. Three new species of Halpe Moore, 1878 (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). Atalanta 39 (1/4): 292-296.
  • Devyatkin, A.L., 2012: Hesperiidae of Vietnam, 19. New records since 2003 ,with the description of a new species. (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Atalanta 43 (1/2): 151-155.
  • Devyatkin, A.L. & A.L.Monastyrskii, 1999: Hesperiidae of Vietnam: 5. An annotated list of the Hesperiidae of North and Central Vietnam. (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). Atalanta 29 (1/4): 151-184.
  • Devyatkin, A.L. & A.L.Monastyrskii, 2002: Hesperiidae of Vietnam: 12. A further contribution to the Hesperiidae fauna of North and Central Vietnam. Atalanta 33 (1/2): 137-155.
  • Devyatkin, A.L. & A.L. Monastyrskii 2003: Hesperiidae of Vietnam, 15. New records of Hesperiidae from southern Vietnam (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Atalanta 34 (1/2): 119-133.
  • Freeman, H.A., 1969: Records, new species, and a new genus of Hesperiidae from Mexico (Supplement 2). The Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 23 (suppl. 2): 1-64. Full article: [16].
  • Hsu, Y.F. , H. Chiba , Y.C. Yang , H. Tsukiyama , P.S. Yang & S.M. Wang, 2006: A taxonomic review of the Taiwanese Skippers described by Shonen Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Zoological Studies 45 (3): 322-338. Full article: [17]
  • Indue, S. & A. Kawazoe, 1970: Hesperiid butterflies from South Vietnam (5). Tôo to Ga 21 (1/2): 1-14. Full article: [18].
  • Mielke, O.H.H. & M.M. Casagrande, 2002: Taxonomic notes on neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera), with descriptions of new taxa. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 19 (suppl. 1): 27-76. Full article: [19].
  • Miller, L.D., 1971: Descriptions of new species and notes on other Hesperiidae of Africa. Bull. Allyn Museum 2: 1-17. Full article: [20]
  • Miller, L.D. & J.Y. Miller, 1972: New high-altitude Hesperiinae from Mexico and Ecuador (Hesperiidae). Bull. Allyn Museum 7: 1-7. Full article: [21]
  • Sousa de A. Bivar & L.F. Mendes, 2007: On the genus Eagris Guenée, 1863 in Angola (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Shilap Revista de Lepidopterologia 35 (139): 311-316. Full article: [22]
  • Steiner, S.R., 1975: An annotated list of the Hesperiidae of El Salvador. Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 29: 1-34. Full article: [23].
  • Steinhauser, S.R., 1989: Taxonomic notes and descriptions of new taxa in the neotropical Hesperiidae. Part I. Pyrginae. Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 127: 1-70. Full article: [24].
  • Steinhauser, S.R., 2007: Four new species of neotropical skippers from Colombia, Peru and Brazil (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 147: 1-11.
  • Vane-Wright, R.I. & R. de Jong, 2003: The butterflies of Sulawesi: annotated checklist for a critical island fauna. Zoologische Verhandelingen 343: 3-267. Full article: [25].
  • Warren, A.D. ; J.R. Ogawa & A.V.Z. Brower, 2008: Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies and circumscription of tribes in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea). Cladistics 24: 642-676.
  • Warren, A.D.; Ogawa, J.R.; Brower, A.V.Z. 2009: Revised classification of the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea) based on combined molecular and morphological data. Systematic entomology, 34: 467-523.
  • Watson, F.E., 1937: New Hesperiidae from the Antilles (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). American Museum novitates 906: 1-10. Full article: [26].
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