马尔科姆的王国没有延伸至现代苏格兰的全部领土：苏格兰北部和西部仍被斯堪的纳维亚人、北欧盖尔人及盖尔人所控制，直到十二世纪，苏格兰王国所控制的范围也并没有大大超出马尔科姆二世（Máel Coluim mac Cináeda）在位时的范围。马尔科姆多次向苏格兰王国发动继承战争，他征战的目的可能是为了征服英格兰诺森布里亚的伯爵领地。这些战争没有带来任何向南扩充领土的显著成效。 马尔科姆最主要的功绩只是在苏格兰安稳的统治了三十余年； 尽管他的地位是"王朝的缔造者"，但比任何历史记载都真实可靠的是，他的大多文治武功都是其幼子大卫及后裔为巩固统治而宣传编造的。
1034年，马尔科姆的曾外祖父马尔科姆二世（肯尼思之子马尔科姆，Máel Coluim mac Cináeda）驾崩，马尔科姆的父亲邓肯一世（克里南之子邓肯，Donnchad mac Crínáin）作为马尔科姆二世的外孙继位为苏格兰国王。据后来为威廉·莎士比亚创作戏剧《麦克白》带来灵感的编年史作者富尔顿的约翰所述，马尔科姆的母亲是诺森布里亚伯爵希华的一个侄女，但一份早期的国王列表中给她取了盖尔语名苏珊。其他的来源资料称，无论是女儿或是侄女都年龄太小而不适合结婚，因此，邓肯的母亲是希华自己的妹妹西比尔更可靠些，西比尔的名字转化成盖尔语可能为苏珊。
邓肯统治很不得人心，1040年8月15日邓肯在与麦克白塔德（芬莱克之子，Mac Bethad mac Findlaích） 交战时被后者杀死。尽管莎士比亚的戏剧《麦克白》 将马尔科姆描述成了一个成年男子并把邓肯描述成了一位老者，但到邓肯被杀害时，马尔科姆还很幼小，马尔科姆和弟弟唐纳德·班（Domnall Bán）都还只是孩子。1045年，马尔科姆的家人试图推翻麦克白塔德，但马尔科姆的祖父邓凯尔德的克里南在尝试中被打死。
If Orderic Vitalis is to be relied upon, one of Malcolm's earliest actions as King may have been to travel south to the court of Edward the Confessor in 1059 to arrange a marriage with Edward's kinswoman Margaret, who had arrived in England two years before from Hungary. If he did visit the English court, he was the first reigning King of Scots to do so in more than eighty years. If a marriage agreement was made in 1059, it was not kept, and this may explain the Scots invasion of Northumbria in 1061 when Lindisfarne was plundered. Equally, Malcolm's raids in Northumbria may have been related to the disputed "Kingdom of the Cumbrians", reestablished by Earl Siward in 1054, which was under Malcolm's control by 1070.
The Orkneyinga saga reports that Malcolm married the widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Ingibiorg, a daughter of Finn Arnesson. Although Ingibiorg is generally assumed to have died shortly before 1070, it is possible that she died much earlier, around 1058. The Orkneyinga Saga records that Malcolm and Ingibiorg had a son, Duncan II (Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim), who was later king. Some Medieval commentators, following William of Malmesbury, claimed that Duncan was illegitimate, but this claim is propaganda reflecting the need of Malcolm's descendants by Margaret to undermine the claims of Duncan's descendants, the Meic Uilleim. Malcolm's son Domnall, whose death is reported in 1085, is not mentioned by the author of the Orkneyinga Saga. He is assumed to have been born to Ingibiorg.
Malcolm's marriage to Ingibiorg secured him peace in the north and west. The Heimskringla tells that her father Finn had been an adviser to Harald Hardraade and, after falling out with Harald, was then made an Earl by Sweyn Estridsson, King of Denmark, which may have been another recommendation for the match. Malcolm enjoyed a peaceful relationship with the Earldom of Orkney, ruled jointly by his stepsons, Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson. The Orkneyinga Saga reports strife with Norway but this is probably misplaced as it associates this with Magnus Barefoot, who became king of Norway only in 1093, the year of Malcolm's death.
Although he had given sanctuary to Tostig Godwinson when the Northumbrians drove him out, Malcolm was not directly involved in the ill-fated invasion of England by Harald Hardraade and Tostig in 1066, which ended in defeat and death at the battle of Stamford Bridge. In 1068, he granted asylum to a group of English exiles fleeing from William of Normandy, among them Agatha, widow of Edward the Confessor's nephew Edward the Exile, and her children: Edgar Ætheling and his sisters Margaret and Cristina. They were accompanied by Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria. The exiles were disappointed, however, if they had expected immediate assistance from the Scots.
In 1069 the exiles returned to England, to join a spreading revolt in the north. Even though Gospatric and Siward's son Waltheof submitted by the end of the year, the arrival of a Danish army under Sweyn Estridsson seemed to ensure that William's position remained weak. Malcolm decided on war, and took his army south into Cumbria and across the Pennines, wasting Teesdale and Cleveland then marching north, loaded with loot, to Wearmouth. There Malcolm met Edgar and his family, who were invited to return with him, but did not. As Sweyn had by now been bought off with a large Danegeld, Malcolm took his army home. In reprisal, William sent Gospatric to raid Scotland through Cumbria. In return, the Scots fleet raided the Northumbrian coast where Gospatric's possessions were concentrated. Late in the year, perhaps shipwrecked on their way to a European exile, Edgar and his family again arrived in Scotland, this time to remain. By the end of 1070, Malcolm had married Edgar's sister Margaret of Wessex, the future Saint Margaret of Scotland.
The naming of their children represented a break with the traditional Scots Regal names such as Malcolm, Cináed and Áed. The point of naming Margaret's sons, Edward after her father Edward the Exile, Edmund for her grandfather Edmund Ironside, Ethelred for her great-grandfather Ethelred the Unready and Edgar for her great-great-grandfather Edgar and her brother, briefly the elected king, Edgar Ætheling, was unlikely to be missed in England, where William of Normandy's grasp on power was far from secure. Whether the adoption of the classical Alexander for the future Alexander I of Scotland (either for Pope Alexander II or for Alexander the Great) and the biblical David for the future David I of Scotland represented a recognition that William of Normandy would not be easily removed, or was due to the repetition of Anglo-Saxon Royal name—another Edmund had preceded Edgar—is not known. Margaret also gave Malcolm two daughters, Edith, who married Henry I of England, and Mary, who married Eustace III of Boulogne.
In 1072, with the Harrying of the North completed and his position again secure, William of Normandy came north with an army and a fleet. Malcolm met William at Abernethy and, in the words of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle "became his man" and handed over his eldest son Duncan as a hostage and arranged peace between William and Edgar. Accepting the overlordship of the king of the English was no novelty, as previous kings had done so without result. The same was true of Malcolm; his agreement with the English king was followed by further raids into Northumbria, which led to further trouble in the earldom and the killing of Bishop William Walcher at Gateshead. In 1080, William sent his son Robert Curthose north with an army while his brother Odo punished the Northumbrians. Malcolm again made peace, and this time kept it for over a decade.
Malcolm faced little recorded internal opposition, with the exception of Lulach's son Máel Snechtai. In an unusual entry, for the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle contains little on Scotland, it says that in 1078:
Malcholom [Máel Coluim] seized the mother of Mælslæhtan [Máel Snechtai] ... and all his treasures, and his cattle; and he himself escaped with difficulty.
Whatever provoked this strife, Máel Snechtai survived until 1085.
威廉·鲁弗斯在他父亲去世后不久成为英格兰国王，马尔科姆没有干预罗贝尔的叛乱。在1091年，威廉·鲁弗斯 没收爱德加在英格兰的土地后爱德加逃离北上苏格兰。 5月，马尔科姆南下，并没有掠夺袭击，但围攻罗贝尔在1080年建成的纽卡斯尔。这似乎是一个为了促进边境南部的特维德河 向蒂斯河推进。这对英格兰的威胁足以让一直和罗贝尔·柯索斯战斗的威廉·鲁弗斯返回诺曼底。在9月，威廉·鲁弗斯率军回师，马尔科姆撤回英国北部。这次不像在1072年马尔科姆准备攻打英格兰，但由于罗贝尔·柯索斯和埃德加的干扰，马尔科姆不得不称承认英格兰的地位。
Malcolm appears in William Shakespeare’s Macbeth. He is the son of King Duncan and heir to the throne. He first appears in the second scene where he is talking to a sergeant, with Duncan. The sergeant tells them how the battle was won thanks to Macbeth. Then Ross comes and Duncan decides that Macbeth should take the title of Thane of Cawdor. Then he later appears in Act 1.4 talking about the execution of the former Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth then enters and they congratulate him on his victory. He later appears in Macbeth’s castle as a guest. When his father is killed he is suspected of the murder so he escapes to England. He later makes an appearance in Act 4.3, where he talks to Macduff about Macbeth and what to do. They both decide to start a war against him. In Act 5.4 he is seen in Dunsinane getting ready for war. He orders the troupes to hide behind branches and slowly advance towards the castle. In Act 5.8 he watches the battle against Macbeth and Macduff with Siward and Ross. When eventually Macbeth is killed, Malcolm takes over as king.
The married life of Malcolm III and Margaret has been the subject of two historical novels: A Goodly Pearl (1905) by Mary H. Debenham, and Malcolm Canmore's Pearl (1907) by Agnes Grant Hay. Both focus on court life in Dunfermline, and the Margaret helping introduce Anglo-Saxon culture in Scotland. The latter novel covers events to 1093, ending with Malcolm's death.
Canmore appears in the third and fourth episodes of the four-part series "City of Stone" in Disney's Gargoyles, as an antagonist of Macbeth. After witnessing his father Duncan's death, the young Canmore swears revenge on both Macbeth and his gargoyle ally, Demona. After reaching adulthood, he overthrows Macbeth with English allies. Canmore is also the ancestor of the Hunters, a family of vigilantes who hunt Demona through the centuries. Canmore was voiced in the series by J.D. Daniels as a boy and Neil Dickson as an adult.
- ^ Ritchie，第3页
- ^ Burton，第1卷，第350页指出：“邓肯之子马尔科姆被称简称为马尔科姆三世，但更好的简称或许是他的特征名称坎莫尔，该名称据说来源自凯尔特语的"Cenn Mór"，意为“大脑袋”。最近有些人认为并指出真正的“马尔科姆·坎莫尔”是马尔科姆的曾孙马尔科姆四世，在他驾崩时同时代的布告中给他了这个绰号。 Duncan，第51–52页、第74–75页；Oram，第17页，脚注1
- ^ King Malcolm CANMORE OF SCOTLAND III & St Margaret "Atheling" OF ENGLAND. Millsgen.com. 2010-06-28 [2012-11-08].
- ^ 4.0 4.1 Orkneyinga Saga，第33角
- ^ 这个王朝的名称该如何称呼是个开放的问题。"邓凯尔德王朝"名称的来源几乎是未知的；"坎莫尔王"和"坎莫尔王朝"没有被普遍接受，理查德·奥拉姆的近代硬币中的"meic Maíl Coluim"或迈克尔·林奇的"MacMalcolm"也不被认可。就这一问题的讨论范例，如：Duncan，第53–54页； McDonald，Outlaws，第3页；Barrow，Kingship and Unity，附录C；Reid. Broun discusses the question of identity at length.
- ^ Hammond，第21页 第一个已知的苏格兰王血统家谱是从马尔科姆开始的，而不是从肯尼思一世（Cináed mac Ailpín）或弗格斯一世开始的，这可以往下追溯至亚历山大二世的统治时期。 见Broun，第195–200页
- ^ Fordun，IV，xliv.
- ^ Young也把她作为希华的侄女。 Young，第30页
- ^ Duncan，第37页；M.O. Anderson，第284页
- ^ Annals of Tigernach中邓肯被杀害的记录，诸如：1040年说他是"被杀的人 ... 在一个不成熟的年龄"；Duncan，第33页
- ^ Duncan，第33页；Oram，David I，第18页 如果阿瑟尔的马尔马里是邓肯的儿子，那么他们就还有个三弟。 Oram，David I，第97页，脚注26，否认此观点。
- ^ Duncan，第41页；《阿尔斯特编年史》诸如：1045年；Annals of Tigernach，诸如：1045年
- ^ Annals of Scotland，第1卷，Sir David Dalrymple，第32页
- ^ Ritchie，第3页
- ^ Young，第30页
- ^ Barrell，第13页；Barrow，Kingship and Unity，第25页
- ^ Ritchie，第3页说他流亡十四年，其余时光在艾德沃德的宫廷里度过。
- ^ Duncan，第42页；Oram，David I，第18–20页 马尔科姆后期生活和奥克尼有着密切的联系，索芬伯爵可能是马尔科姆二世的外孙或邓肯的表亲。
- ^ 参见，例如Ritchie，Normans，第5页，或Stenton，Anglo-Saxon England，第570页；Ritchie，第5页指出邓肯把他的儿子，即未来的苏格兰的马尔科姆三世封为坎布里亚亲王，并指出希华在1054年入侵苏格兰的目的是为了让他登上苏格兰王位。赫尔托·博伊思也同样记述此时（第7卷第249也），Young，第30页也如此记述
- ^ Broun，"Identity of the Kingdom"，第133页&第34页；Duncan，Kingship，第40页
- ^ Oram，David I，第29页
- ^ Duncan，Kingship，第37页&第41页
- ^ Broun，"Identity of the Kingdom"，第134页；Oram，David I，第18页&第20页；Woolf，Pictland to Alba，第262页
- ^ Duncan，Kingship of the Scots，第41页
- ^ Woolf，Pictland to Alba，第262页
- ^ Ritchie，第7页
- ^ Anderson，ESSH，第600–602页；Berchán预言称麦克白塔德在战斗中负重伤后在斯昆死亡。
- ^ 据Annals of Tigernach；Tigernach传奇称卢拉赫在和马尔科姆交战时被打死。 见Anderson，ESSH，第603–604页
- ^ Duncan，第50–51页 这些事件年代的讨论。
- ^ Duncan, p. 43; Ritchie, pp. 7–8.
- ^ Duncan, p. 43; Oram, David I, p. 21.
- ^ Oram, David I, p. 21.
- ^ Orkneyinga Saga, c. 33, Duncan, pp. 42–43.
- ^ See Duncan, pp. 42–43, dating Ingibiorg's death to 1058. Oram, David I, pp. 22–23, dates the marriage of Malcolm and Ingibiorg to c. 1065.
- ^ Duncan, pp. 54–55; Broun, p. 196; Anderson, SAEC, pp. 117–119.
- ^ Duncan, p. 55; Oram, David I, p. 23. Domnall's death is reported in the Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1085: "... Domnall son of Máel Coluim, king of Alba, ... ended [his] life unhappily." However, it is not certain that Domnall's father was this Máel Coluim. M.O. Anderson, ESSH, corrigenda p. xxi, presumes Domnall to have been a son of Máel Coluim mac Maíl Brigti, King or Mormaer of Moray, who is called "king of Scotland" in his obituary in 1029.
- ^ Saga of Harald Sigurðson, cc. 45ff.; Saga of Magnus Erlingsson, c. 30. See also Oram, David I, pp. 22–23.
- ^ Orkneyinga Saga, cc. 39–41; McDonald, Kingdom of the Isles, pp. 34–37.
- ^ Adam of Bremen says that he fought at Stamford Bridge, but he is alone in claiming this: Anderson, SAEC, p. 87, n. 3.
- ^ Oram, David I, p. 23; Anderson, SAEC, pp. 87–90. Orderic Vitalis states that the English asked for Malcolm's assistance.
- ^ Duncan, pp. 44–45; Oram, David I, pp. 23–24.
- ^ Oram, David I, p. 24; Clancy, "St. Margaret", dates the marriage to 1072.
- ^ Malcolm's sons by Ingebiorg were probably expected to succeed to the kingdom of the Scots, Oram, David I, p. 26.
- ^ Oram, p. 26.
- ^ Oram, pp. 30–31; Anderson, SAEC, p. 95.
- ^ Oram, David I, p. 33.
- ^ Anderson, SAEC, p. 100.
- ^ His death is reported by the Annals of Ulster amongst clerics and described as "happy", usually a sign that the deceased had entered religion.
- ^ Oram, David I, pp. 34–35; Anderson, SAEC, pp. 104–108.
- ^ Duncan, pp. 47–48; Oram, David I, pp. 35–36; Anderson, SAEC, pp. 109–110.
- ^ Oram, David I, pp.36–37.
- ^ Anglo-Saxon Chronical 1093
- ^ Duncan, p. 54; Oram, David I, p. 42.
- ^ Anderson, SAEC, pp. 97–113, contains a number of English chronicles condemning Malcolm's several invasions of Northumbria.
- ^ The Annals of Innisfallen say he "was slain with his son in an unguarded moment in battle".
- ^ Oram, pp. 37–38; Anderson, SAEC, pp. 114–115.
- ^ The notice in the Annals of Innisfallen ends "and Margaréta his wife, died of grief for him."
- ^ Anderson, SAEC, pp. 111–113. M.O. Anderson reprints three regnal lists, lists F, I and K, which give a place of burial for Malcolm. These say Iona, Dunfermline, and Tynemouth, respectively.
- ^ Dunlop, p. 93.
- ^ Baker (1914), p. 12-
- ^ Nield (1925), p. 27
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- CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork includes the Annals of Ulster, Tigernach and Innisfallen, the Lebor Bretnach and the Chronicon Scotorum among others. Most are translated or translations are in progress.