分类级别

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索
生物域界门纲目科属种
生物分类法上八个主要的分类单元,生物被分成三个域,并进一步被划分成其他分类单元。本图没有显示较小的中间分类单元。

生物分类法中,分类级别英语:taxonomic rank)是在分类学等级制度中的层次 (相对位置)。

每一个级别之下包含了若干不够普遍的分类。物种和属这两个级别是最基本的,除此之外的级别可能是不必要的。[1]

主要分类级别[编辑]

生物分类级别(Taxonomic rank)
中文 拉丁语 英语
regio domain
regnum kingdom
phylum divisio phylum (动物学) division (植物学)
classis class
ordo order
familia family
genus genus
species species

示例[编辑]

排序 黑腹果蠅 豌豆 毒蠅傘 大腸桿菌
真核生物 Eukaryota 真核生物 Eukaryota 真核生物 Eukaryota 真核生物 Eukaryota 細菌域 Bacteria
動物界 Animalia 動物界 Animalia 植物界 Plantae 真菌界 Fungus 細菌界 Bacteria
節肢動物門 Arthropoda 脊索動物 Chordata 被子植物 Magnoliophyta
維管束植物 Tracheophyta
擔子菌門 Basidiomycota 變形菌門 Proteobacteria
亞門 六足亞門 Hexapoda 脊椎動物亞門 Vertebrata Magnoliophytina
真葉植物 Euphyllophytina
傘菌亞門 Agaricomycotina
昆蟲綱 Insecta 哺乳綱 Mammalia 雙子葉植物 Magnoliopsida木賊綱 Equisetopsida 傘菌綱 Agaricomycetes γ-變形菌 Gammaproteobacteria
亞綱 有翅亞綱 Pterygota 獸亞綱 Theria 薔薇亞綱 Rosidae
木蘭類植物 Magnoliidae
傘菌亞綱 Agaricomycetidae
總目 靈長總目 Euarchontoglires 薔薇總目 Rosanae
雙翅目 Diptera 靈長目 Primates 豆目 Fabales 傘菌目 Agaricales 腸桿菌科 Enterobacteriales
亞目 短角亞目 Brachycera 簡鼻亞目 Haplorrhini 豆亞目 Fabineae 傘菌亞目 Agaricineae
果蠅科 Drosophilidae 人科 Hominidae 豆科 Fabaceae 鵝膏菌科 Amanitaceae 腸桿菌科 Enterobacteriaceae
亞科 果蠅亞科 Drosophilinae 人亞科 Homininae 豆亞科 Faboideae Amanitoideae
果蠅屬 Drosophila 人屬 Homo 豌豆屬 Pisum 鵝膏菌屬 Amanita 埃希氏菌屬 Escherichia
黑腹果蠅 D. melanogaster 智人 H. sapiens 豌豆 P. sativum 毒蠅傘 Amanita muscaria|A. muscaria 大腸桿菌 E. coli

全部分類[编辑]

問題[编辑]

參見[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, Melbourne Code, 2012, articles 2 and 3
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 These are movable ranks, most often inserted between the class and the legion or cohort. Nevertheless, their positioning in the zoological hierarchy may be subject to wide variation. For examples, see the Benton classification of vertebrates (2005).
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 In zoological classification, the cohort and its associated group of ranks are inserted between the class group and the ordinal group. The cohort has also been used between infraorder and family in saurischian dinosaurs (Benton 2005). In botanical classification, the cohort group has sometimes been inserted between the division (phylum) group and the class group: see Willis & McElwain (2002: 100–101), or has sometimes been used at the rank of order, and is now considered to be an obsolete name for order: See International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, Melbourne Code 2012, Article 17.2.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 The supra-ordinal sequence gigaorder–megaorder–capaxorder–hyperorder (and the microorder, in roughly the position most often assigned to the parvorder) has been employed in turtles at least (Gaffney & Meylan 1988), while the parallel sequence magnorder–grandorder–mirorder figures in recently influential classifications of mammals. It is unclear from the sources how these two sequences are to be coordinated (or interwoven) within a unitary zoological hierarchy of ranks. Previously, Novacek (1986) and McKenna-Bell (1997) had inserted mirorders and grandorders between the order and superorder, but Benton (2005) now positions both of these ranks above the superorder.
  5. ^ Additionally, the terms biovar, morphovar, phagovar, and serovar designate bacterial strains (genetic variants) that are physiologically or biochemically distinctive. These are not taxonomic ranks, but are groupings of various sorts which may define a bacterial subspecies.

參考書目[编辑]

  • Benton, Michael J. 2005. Vertebrate Palaeontology, 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-632-05637-1. ISBN 978-0-632-05637-8
  • Brummitt, R.K., and C.E. Powell. 1992. Authors of Plant Names. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 0-947643-44-3
  • Carroll, Robert L. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York: W.H. Freeman & Co. ISBN 0-7167-1822-7
  • Gaffney, Eugene S., and Peter A. Meylan. 1988. "A phylogeny of turtles". In M.J. Benton (ed.), The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, Volume 1: Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, 157–219. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Haris Abba Kabara. 2001. Karmos hand book for botanical names.
  • Lambert, David. 1990. Dinosaur Data Book. Oxford: Facts On File & British Museum (Natural History). ISBN 0-8160-2431-6
  • McKenna, Malcolm C., and Susan K. Bell (editors). 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11013-8
  • Milner, Andrew. 1988. "The relationships and origin of living amphibians". In M.J. Benton (ed.), The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, Volume 1: Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, 59–102. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Novacek, Michael J. 1986. "The skull of leptictid insectivorans and the higher-level classification of eutherian mammals". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 183: 1–112.
  • Sereno, Paul C. 1986. "Phylogeny of the bird-hipped dinosaurs (Order Ornithischia)". National Geographic Research 2: 234–56.
  • Willis, K.J., and J.C. McElwain. 2002. The Evolution of Plants. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850065-3