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域 (生物)

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生物分类学
分類單元
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二名法
三域系統
非细胞生物
細胞生物
生物分類法上八個主要的分類單元,生物被分成三個域,並進一步被劃分成其他分類單元。本圖沒有顯示較小的中間分類單元。

生物分類學中,(英語:domain、superkingdom、empire拉丁語regio)是美國生物學家卡爾·沃斯1990年设计的三域系統中最高的分類單元,該系統中,生命之樹英语Tree of life (biology)包含細菌古菌真核生物等三個域,其中前兩者為原核生物,不具有細胞核,後者則具有細胞核[參 1]

三域生物特色[编辑]

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基於16S 核糖體RNA序列的系統發生樹,顯示了可明顯區別的三支:細菌、古菌和真核生物

古菌[编辑]

古菌屬於單細胞原核生物,外形類似細菌,但部分分子序列與代謝途徑與真核生物較相近,其細胞膜醚酯英语Ether lipid所組成,不同於另兩域生物細胞膜主要成分為酯類[參 2]。早期發現的古菌多為嗜極生物,後來漸發現古菌普遍存在各種環境中[參 3]

細菌[编辑]

細菌也屬於單細胞原核生物,其細胞膜為酯類組成,廣泛分布於不同環境中,外形、營養方式與生長環境都有很高的多樣性。細菌的大小一般為0.5-5微米,少數特例如纳米比亚嗜硫珠菌[參 4]費氏刺骨魚菌英语Epulopiscium fishelsoni可大至0.5毫米而能以肉眼觀察[參 5],而小型者如黴漿菌僅有約0.3微米,與大型的病毒大小相仿[參 6],甚至還有更小的超微細菌英语Ultramicrobacteria[參 7]

真核生物[编辑]

真核生物具有細胞核以及多種膜結構組成的內膜系統,包括動物植物真菌[參 8]。2005年,國際原生生物學家協會英语International Society of Protistologists將真核生物分為六个超类群(supergroups),包括後鞭毛生物古蟲界變形蟲界囊泡藻界有孔蟲界原始色素體生物[參 9][參 10],但隨即有學者質疑囊泡藻界並非單系群,並有後續研究將其拆分[參 11][參 12]。近年來持續有許多真核生物的分類理論被提出[參 13][參 14]

分類[编辑]

2002年,英國生物學家湯瑪斯·卡弗利爾-史密斯提出了新壁總域的概念,即古菌與真核生物共同組成一演化支,為細菌中放線菌門姊妹群[參 15]。後續分子種系發生學的研究亦支持古菌與真核生物的親緣關係較與細菌的親緣關係近[參 16]

其他分類系統[编辑]

三域系統(上)與泉古菌假说英语Eocyte hypothesis(下)

除了三域系統外,其他較常用的分類系統還包括:

相關條目[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

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