在多数现代欧洲语言中，分词有现在分词（英语present participle）和过去分词（英语past participle）两种。在德语中，这两种分词更习惯叫作第一分词（德语Partizip I）和第二分词（德语Partizip II）。
- I saw John eating his dinner. 我看見約翰吃飯。(eating是主動分詞，而被修飾名詞John是實施者）
- I have eaten my dinner. 我吃過飯了。（完成時結構；eaten是主动分词）
- John was eaten by lions. 約翰被獅子吃了。（eaten是被動分詞，John是承受者）
- Participles from the American Heritage Book of English Usage (1996).
participle is divide into present participle and past participle. in present participle we use: has/have + present tense word. but the past participle is use: had + past tense word. like:he has never playing volleyball before.(present participle)
he had played volleyball before.(past participle)